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McGraw-Hill, 2011. — 288 p. — ISBN: 0071765832.If you are an absolute beginner or simply looking for a solid foundation to your language studies for school, work or travel, this engaging course will help get you on your way to speaking, writing, reading and understanding Polish in no time. Through an engaging story line, clear language presentations, and extensive practice and review, you will pick up the Polish you need to communicate naturally in everyday situations - from shopping and travelling to food and daily life. Engaging with our interactive Discovery Method, you'll absorb language rules and vocabulary faster, and put your Polish into use with confidence.
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®

Teach
Yourself

Get started
in Polish
Joanna Michalak-Gray

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Telephone: 905 430 5000. Fax: 905 430 5020.

Long renowned as the authoritatlve source for self-guided learning wlth more !han 50 million copies sold worldwlde - the

Teach Yourseif

series lncludes over 500 tltles In the fields of languages, crafts, bobbies,
business, computlng and educatlon
British Library Cataloguing In Publicatlon Data: a catalogue record for
!his title Is available from the British Library.
Library of Congress Catalog Gard Number: on file.
First published in UK 2009 as

Teach Yourseif Beglnner� Pollsh

by Hodder Educatlon, part of Hachette UK, 338 Euston Road,
London NW1 3BH.

First published in U'S 2009 as

Teach YourseifBeglnnerHoUsh

byThe McGraw-Hill Companles, Inc.
This edition published 2010.
The

Teach Yourseif narne Is a reglstered trade mark of Hodder Headline.

Copyright Cl 2009, 2010 Joanna Michalak-Gray

In UK: All rights reserved Apart from any permitted use under

UK copyright law, no part of !his publicatlon may be reproduced or

transmitted In any form or by any means, electronlc or mechanlcal,
includlng photocopy, recordlng, or any lnformatlon, storage and

retrieval system, wlthout permlsslon In writlng from the publisher
or under licence from the Copyright Licenslng Agency Limited.

Further details of such licences(for reprographlc reproductlon)
may be obtained from the Copyright Licenslng;  Agency Limited,
of Saffron House, 6-10 Klrby Street, London EC1N BTS.

In US: All rights reserved Except as permltted under the United States
Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publicatlon may be reproduced

or dlstributed in any form or by any means, or stored In a database or

retrieval system, wlthout the priorwritten permlsslon of the publisher.
Typeset by MPS Limited, a Macmillan Company.
Printed In Great Britaln for Hodder Educatlon, an Hachette

UK Company, 338Euston Road, London NW1 3BH,

by CPI Cox & Wyman, Reading, Berkshlre RG1 BllX.
The publisher has used its best endeavours to ensure that the URLs

for external websites referred to In this book are correct and actlve at

the time of �Ing to press. However, the publisher and the author have
no responsibllity for the websltes and can make no guarantee thai a

sile will remaln live or thai the content will remaln relevant, decent or
approprlate.
Hachette UK's policy Is to use papers !hat are natura!, renewable and
recyclable products and made from wood grown In sustalnable forests.

The Jogging and manufacturing processes are expected to conform to
the envlronmental regulations of the country of origln.
lmpresslon number
Year

2014 2013 :201:2 :2011 :2010

Ackn owl ed g e m ents

Isupport
would liandke toencouragement,
thank my famifriends
ly, especially
Ian for histopatience,
too
numerous
mention
individually
by
name,
in
England
and
Poland
for
their
direct
and
indirect
contributions.
A
special
thanks
to
Nigel
Gotteri
for
his
considerabl
e contri
butionHelena
to this course
and toandChrisBrenda
and IslaRabbidge,
Adamek,
Anna
and
Rob
Marfleet,
McDougall
for being
enthusiastic
students
and patient
recipients
of theI owegooda
and
not
so
good
ideas
which
shaped
this
course.
As
always
great debt of gratitude to the editors, particularly Alexandra Jaton,
Helen Vick, Helen Hart and the reviewers.
Any flak should, of course, be directed straight at the author.
all

This page intentionally left blank

Co ntents

1

2

3

4

s

6

7

Meet the author
Only got a min ute?
Only got five minutes?
How to use this book
Jestem And rew /'m Andrew
lntrod u cing you rself
Stati n g yo u r n ation a l i ty and profession
Add ressing someone pol i tely
Saying you a re hungry or ti red
To j est mój pies, Azor This is my dog, Azor
lntrod u cing others
Ta l ki n g a bout yo u r fa m i ly
Aski n g a bout and descri b i n g peop le, a n i ma l s a nd objects
Jestem szczęś l iwy - m a m czas I pieniądze
l'm happy - l've got time and money
Saying you have or don't have someth i ng
Aski n g if someone h a s someth i ng
Saying you have got time to do somethi ng
M uszę już Iść l've go t to go now
Saying you m u st/have to d o somethi ng
Saying you don't h ave to do somethi ng
Tel l i ng the time
Chciał(a)bym za mówić stolik J'd like to book a table
Saying what you would or wou ld n't l i ke to do
Aski n g how someone i s
Aski n g fo r h el p a n d i nformation
Saying n u m bers 0- 1 00
Poproszę lody Can I have an ice cream, please?
Aski n g for th ing s pol i tely
Orderi n g food
B uyi n g sta m p s a n d postcards
Lu bię kuc hnię polską I like Polish cuisine
Exp ressi ng l i kes a n d d i s l i kes
Ta l ki n g a bout yo u r favo u rite cui sine
Contents

ix
X

xi i
xiv
1

17

27

42

54

69

80

V

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

vi

Można, trzeba, wo lno, wa rto One can,
one needs to, it's allowed, it's worth
Aski n g for permi ssion
Saying what need s to be dane
Saying what i s and i s not a l lowed
Saying somethi ng i s worth doing
Co, gdzie, kiedy What where, when
How to ask what/where/when q uestions
Arrangi ng a meeting
Descri bing a l ocation
Mój dziade k był My grandfather was . . .
Ta l ki n g a bout people in the past
Ta l ki n g a bout events i n the past
Descri bing wh at you saw a nd where you went i n the past
Nie wiedziałem, że o n i byl i
I didn't know they were
Saying you d id n't know/d id n't suppo se something
Descri bing d ifferent p rofessions
Descri bing d ifferent nationa l i ties
Czy m ogę ? Can I . . . ?
Aski n g if you ca n do someth i ng
Saying what you ca n a n d ca n not d o
Saying what you a re a n d a re n ot a ble t o d o
Jak dojechać do ? How do we get to „ . ?
G ivi ng a nd und ersta nd i ng d i rections
Descri bing how fa r away pia ces a re
Descri bing g eog ra ph ica l d i rection s
Jaki piękny og ród za domem What a beautifu/
garden behind the house
Exp ressi ng a p preciation
Descri bing a hou se and its contents
Descri bing wh at i s a round the house
Wyg ra m milion na loteri i /'// win a mi/lion on the lottery
Ta l ki n g a bout the futu re
Exp ressi ng surprise
Grammar appendix
Test yo urself revision exercises
Key to the exercises
...

...

...

...

„.

94

1 08

1 24

1 37

1 49

1 60

173

1 84

1 96
216
2 26

249
257

Polish-English vocabulary
English-Polish vocabulary
Taking it further
Polish language game

267
269

Credit s

© Adam Antolak/iStockphoto.com
©Jakub Semeniuk/iStockphoto.com,
©Cook/iStockphoto.
Royal Free/Corbis,
©©agencyby/iStockphoto.
com, ©Andy
c
om,
Christopher
Ewing/iStockphoto.
com,
om,
©© zebicho
Fotolia.
c
om,
©
Geoffrey
Holman/iStockphoto.
c
Photodisc/Getty
©Mohamed
Saber -Images,
Fotolia.©James
com C. Pruitt/iStockphoto.com,
© Stockbyte/Getty Images

Front cover:

Back cover and pack:

ty-

Pack:

Contents

Vii

This page intentionally left blank

Meet t h e a u t h o r

I started
teaching
somein30Poland.
years ago,
inten1980,yearsas ofa teacher
ofEnglish
Englishtomyasstudents
a foreignofcareer
language
After
teaching
diff
e
rent
backgrounds,
ages
and
abi
l
ities
I moved
toTheBritain
and
switched
to
teaching
Polish
to
English
speaking
students.
lack and
of appropriate
textbooks
persuaded
me to start
writing
myonown
materiał
to
develop
a
new
approach
to
teaching
Polish
based
real-liuser-friendly
fe conversations
incorporated
into story-like courses, combined
with
grammar
explanations.
I am co-authorbothof published by Hodder
and Education.
author of I also worked as a
language consultant for
by Elisabeth Smith.
Since 1993, I have worked as a scrutineer of Polish GCSE examinations.
Complete Polish

Speak Polish with

Confidence,

Last-Minute Polish

Joanna Michalak-Gray

Onlygota minute?
Po l ish may sometimes be perceived as a somewhat
obscure language but it is the native l anguage of
Nicho las Copernicus, Joseph Conrad, Maria Cu rie and
Frederic Chopin, and the adopted l angu age of the
eminent historian Professor Norman Davies and the
famo u s viol inist Nigel Kennedy. lts grammar and lexicon
reflects the complex history and character of Pol and - a
place straddling East and West, Latin and Christian on
the one hand, while influenced by the Ottoman Empire
on the other. In the past, Po land was at the crossroads of
trade ro utes - mainly the Amber Ro ute leading from the
Baltic Sea to the Mediterranean and linking with the Silk
Route. Religio u s and pol itical to lerance, as wel l as l iberal
laws, attracted merchants and artists from al l over Eu rope
and the Middl e East who enriched the Pol ish l angu age
with words of Tu rkish, Mongolia n, Jewish, Russian,
German, ltalian or French o rigin.

But above al l , the sto ry of the Po l ish l angu age
is the sto ry of s u r vival against al l the odds - from the
day when Pol and ceased to exist on the map of Eu rope
in 1795, when it was partitioned between the three
powers of Ru s sia, Pru ssia and the Au st ro-Hu ngarian
Empire, thro ugh the days of national u prisings and the
determination of the occupying powers to eradicate
Po l ish altogether, both wo rld wars and the age of
Orwel l ian New Speak of the communist regime - the
l angu age and the people su r vived. Far from being
eradicated, Pol ish has produ ced many great wo rks of
l iterat u re inc l uding being international ly accl aimed
through fou r Noble Prize winners (Henryk Sienkiewicz,
Władysław Reymont, Czesław Miło sz, Wisława
Szymbor ska). Learning Po l ish is exciting and chal lenging
but u l timately extremely rewarding - it wil l open and
expand yo u r ho rizons beyond anything you thought
was po ssibl e.

Only got five minutes?
�X"s ��1'� ratłter surprising but Polish and English have actually
g6f/�1@. ��'ili common - both languages belong to the

same

broad

family of Indo-European languages, both have been heavily influenced

by Latin and Greek, and Polish has adopted a lot of English vocabulary.

muzyka, matem atyka, medycyna, filozofia, fizyka or
ko m puter will not be difficult to figure out.

Words such as

Words
origin which in English end in
in ofForLatin
example,

in Polish end

-tion,
-cja.
information - i nfo rmacja, adoration - adoracja,
congregation - kongregacja, inflation - Inflacja, foundation fu ndacja.

English
inSimilari
l ly,Forwhereexampl
e, words end in Polish counterparts end
But Polish
andusedEnglish
arethealsolingua-franca
similar in another
way. Liand
ke English
today,
Polish
to
be
of
the
Central
Europe at the time of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.Eastern
There are many differences of course, but it is always helpful to focus on
theIs itcommon
ground
andclaim
take itit tofrombe?there.
Soabout
whatitsistounge-twisting
Polish really like?
as
difficult
as
many
What
pronunciation? And what about its history?
Polish with
Czech
andapproximately
Slovak belongstheto1othWest-Sl
avonicwhenlanguages.
Its
history
goes
back
to
century
i
n
966
Duke
Mieszko
I,ty.theWith
rulerChristi
of several
newl
y uniLatin.ted Adopting
Polish tribestheaccepted
Christi
a
ni
a
ni
t
y
carne
Latin
alphabet
allowed
Polish
to
develop
into
a
written
form
and
opened
Poland
to
Western
ideas.
The
establishment
of
the
Jagiellonian
Uni
v
ersity
i
n
Kraków
betweenuniversities.
scholars in Poland
and
thoseinof1364otherfurther
greatnurtured
medievallinks
European
-al,
- c zny .
political- polityczny, m usical - m uzyczny,
logical - logiczny, medical- medyczny.

With
Commonwealth,
Age
dawnedtheandadvent
withofit thea newPolish-Lithuanian
importance for Polish
-it became aa Golden
lingua-franca
ofBlackCentral
Europe.
TheandPolishliberalkingdom
stretchedmerchants
from the and
Baltieartists
to thefrom
Sea;
its
tolerance
l
a
ws
attracted
all over Europe
asewell
as factrefugees
fleeingsurprising
povertyconsidering
and persecution
inmodern
other
European
countri
s.
This
is
rather
that
in
times it is the Poles who have frequently become immigrants themselves.
But
by
1795
the
glory
days
were
over.
Poland
was
partitioned
and
removed frompushed
the mapout ofofEurope,
whiwith
le thethePolishintention
languageofwasmaking
deliberately
public
life
itpowers
extinct.triedThetoplandiminish
did notPolish,
workthethough,
andPolesthe more
theanyoccupying
harder
resisted
such move.
However, over 120 years of partitions left their mark on the language
which absorbed some German and Russian influences.
The
end ofWorld
WarasI brought
independence
for Poland
and theBut
freedom
to
use
Polish
an
o:ffi
c
ial
language
in
public
life
again.
yetwanted
againtohistory
intervened
and withinwould
the space
ofto 30doyears
Poles
who
study
thei
r
nati
v
e
language
have
so
in
secrecy,
riPolskaingnd,their
lives. Worlddistruction
War II brought
theattempt
German
occupation
ofto
unimaginable
and
an
to
rel
e
gate
Polish
status of a second
class language.
TheOrwellian
end ofWorld
War II The
heralded
theltheanguage
emergence
of
communism
with
its
New
Speak.
Polish
was transformed to serve the new reality.
The collapse of communism in 1989 and the emergence of the market
economy
meant
that new
words
describing
consumer
products
never
seen
in
Poland
before
had
to
be
introduced,
and
they
had
to be
introduced
fast.
The
frantic
pace
of
the
development
of
new
technologies
demanded
languageon Polish.
to keep up. This time it was English which had
the strongesttheimpact
'-""'''41
�
bol ofpolish
For
many
Poles
their
l
a
nguage
is
a
precious
thing
-i
t'
survival;
always
closely
linked
to
the
fortunes
of
the
�try and the nation,
usedmedium
as an instrument
oftheoppresion,
indoctrination
„ power, as well as
theimportant
to
express
most
patriotic
ideas.
It
i
�
most
factor in shaping what Poland and the Po ablliykethetoday.
full

�

re

'�CĄ?

„ ",7�,,
Orlly gotnvl!Wfł•�

�

H ow to u se t h i s boo k

Learning
a foreign
language
is always
exciting,
but orlearning
onsupport
your own
can
also
be
daunting.
There
no
fellow
students
tutors
to
you.
I ahope
wimore
ll makeenjotheyabletaskthanoflearning
Polish
alone
lot
less
daunting
and
much
it
might
be. To
help
you
on
your
way,
I
have
included
bilingual
dialogues,
and
exercises
that
beAlsoturned
into aisgame
whichinformation
can be played
asPoland
a grouptogether
activity
orwithalone.
included
cultural
about
lots of useful learning tips.
are
bilingual,
with
Polish
and
English
side
by
side.
This
layout
gives you
fulls going
controlonover
thedialogue.
text andItremoves
ambiguity;
you always to
know
what'
in
the
also
gives
you
an
opportunity
learn phrases
in context.
Don'trhyme.
be afraidOnetooflearn
the ways
wholetodialogue
by
heart
li
k
e
a
poem
or
nursery
the
best
work
with
dialogues
is to copy
themincarefully
onto
individual
pieces
ofthepaperdialogue
(atogether
good writing
exercise
itself),
mi
x
the
pieces
up
and
put
again.theAnother
way
isintoto mask
theThen
Polishyousidecanofswap
the dialogue
and
translate
English
part
Polish.
sides to
practise translation from Polish into English.
Each Dialogueintroduced
is proceeded
a You may bewhich
listsbyallthethefact
new
vocabulary
in thebyDialogue.
puzzled
thatpairsin theseparated
middlebycolumn
of each
vocabulary
table
some wordsalwaysappear
inverbs
a
symbol
>.The
words
in
question
be
and
the
two
varieties
represent
perfecti
v
e
and
imperf
e
ctive
forms
of these verbs.
This(which
book systematically
puts imperfective
verbsthisfirstup with
and
perfective
second
is
what
most
books
do),
and
backs
atowards
little arrowhead
(> ) pointing
awaythefrom
theisimperfective
verbtheandstart
the
perfective.
Although
system
used
right
from
you will find a explanation in Unit
areandprovided
toyou'helpve you
absorb andin theorganize
the words,
expressions
phrases
just
learned
dialogues.
be copied onto pieces of paper (index cards, sticky-notes, cards,Theyetc.)
are

Get Sta rted In Po llsh

can

Dialogues

Vocabulary box

will

full

12.

Diagrams

can

xiv

and displayed
the samekitchen
way ascupboard
they appear
book.
You canonputanythemflatonsurface
walls,ina fridge,
doors,in the
mirrors,
officethings.
board,Theyin factjustanywhere
where
youandcanaccessi
see them
while
doing
other
need
to
be
visible
b
le.
Learning
a language
mean opening
and swotting
for
hours.
You doesn't
can leamalwaayslanguage
in the mosta textbook
unconventional
situations.
The (sentences
in the into Polishsections
follow a certain
patuseiem,
translations
or
into
English),
language
(completing
sentences),
and tum
communication
(responding
in Polishgame.to the
prompts
provi
d
ed).
You
them
into
a
language
learning
You will find the board and the rules of the game at the end of the book.
The
is optional; it can be played solo or with learning
partners,
with
or
without
a board,
forconsists
three minutes
or for ofthreesmallhours.
The
learner
is
in
control.
The
game
of
a
collection
cards
ina didifffferent
erenttype
colours
(blue,
green,
yellow
and
purple).
Each
colour
denotes
of task.
You
are encouraged
tothemake
your
own thecardsquestion
becausewhiit'sleathegoodanswer
writing
exercise.
One
side
of
card
contains
(takenyoufrom
theassess yourself). At the early stages
be written
on thesimply
reversecollect(this
way
can
you
can
cards
and
you
keep
them
close
byyou
can
spend
five,
ten
or
minutes
going
over
theYoucardscanevery
dayanywhitimele waiting
for bus,andon there'
the train
orneedat
coffee
breaks.
do
it
and
anywhere
s
no
to have a textbook with you. Successful learning depends on repetition
and revision
andenough
the cardscardsaretogreat
helpusingin thedoingboardso. Inyouthe latermakestages,
when
you
have
start
your
own board
usingblacktheandtemplate
included
inon1ythe allow
textbook
(itcolours).
needs to
beAgain,
adapted
because
white
print
wi
l
l
two
the gameto and
can not
be played
byofonesomething
as well aselse.manyPlaying
players.theThegamegame
isenhance
in addition
instead
will
the
learning
experience,
but
not
playing
the
game
wil
l
not
stop
you from effective learning.
The
to allmostthe ofexercises
are in thealong with the correct answers
at the back
ofalsotheanswers
book,
but
the
exercises,
are
on the recording.
exercises

Test yourself

can

language game

Key to the exercises)

can

if

15

can

Key to the exercises

How to use this book

XV

introduction
to Polish
theAlthough
beginninthereg ofisthea brief
book,generał
each Unit
ałso contains
a pronunciation at
which wiyoull guito practise
de you stepit asbymuch
step asthrough
enable
you need.Polish pronunciation and
Atgrammatical
the end ofand
the book
you'llmateriał
find a discussed in the coursein which
all the
linguistic
is
gathered,
and same additionałwhich
pointsprovide
explained.
Following
that areto practise mare
a
further
opportunity
ofwhat you have learned in this course.
There islikałsoe toacontinue your studysection
withareuseful
information
ifyouout
would
or
you
interested
in
fi
n
ding
mare about Poland. You ałso find a
and
at the back of the book.

Pronunciation guide
will

Grammar appendix

Test yourself

revision exercises

Taking it further
will

if

Polish-English vocabulary

English-Polish vocabulary

Sym bo l s used I n t h e course

you canng study
withoutLooka recording,
the course
iswhich
best used
with
theAlthough
accompanyi
recording.
out
for
the
symbol
indicates
that the text is recorded.
improve your learninggiveskillsyouto additionał
get the bestadvice
out ofonthestrategies
course. on how to
Above hope that you'll enjoy learning Polish and that in doing so
you'll develop your own exciting story.
oO

Author insight boxes
all, I

• C D1 , TR 1

Pronunciation gu ide

Polishmare
has adiffireputation
for being a language
with
difficult
grammar
and
even
c
ult
pronunciation.
With
the
recent
influx
of
Poles
to
thepeopleUKvisiting
and otherPoland
countries
asyear,wellaaslotmiofllions
ofwho
touristfaceandthebusiness
every
people
need to
pronounce Polish names like Leszczyński, Trzebniewski, Grzegorzewski
xvi

or Tchórzewski
wouldwordsconcur
view. Yetto anthings
not as theys
might
seem. Polish
maywith
lookthat
daunting
Englishare speaker'
eye,
but once
you'
ve learned
samepronunciation
ground rules,is. you'
ll becontrast
delightedtoto
discover
how
consistent
Polish
In
huge
the situation
in English,
you'forlltheimmediately
beThisablincludes
e to pronounce
Polishof
words
when
you
see
them
first
time.
the
names
Polishdon'tpeople
andyou'places,
however
obscure;
as long as youworksdon'tso panie
and
rush,
l
l
be
fine.
Because
this
consistency
much
ina lotyourof detai
favourl throughout
as a learner,thePolish
pronunciation
is
covered
in
quite
We
start with the generał
introduction hereinbuteachyouunit,course.
find
a
section
called
which is also supported by the recording.
Polish, like English, uses the Latin alphabet. Compared to English,
and
areinmissing
fromalphabet
normal isPolish
spelling,
but athemeretotal number
ofletters
the
Polish
brought
up
from
(English's
minus
three)
to
by
extra
letters
with
squiggles:
an
acute
accent over,
a under, a line through or a dot over:
will

Jak to 'K'.)'mówić?

will

Pronunciation guide
q, v

x

23

26

32

tail

ą, ć, ę, ł, ń, 6, ś, "i., ż

The letters and Thecanfinal
be described
andare [ziet] or
lettersandofasthe[żPolish
alphabet
et]
or
describedTheasacute accent ' is known as in Polish, so etc. can be
Remember that the (acute accent) ' does not indicate stress or
emphasis.
Here is the order ofthe Polish alphabet:

ą
ę
a z ogonkiem
e z ogonkiem
(with a littk taił).
ź
zet z kreską (zed with an accent)
ż
zet z kropką (zed with
a dot).
kreska
ć,
z kreską (with an accent).
kreska

a, ą, b, c, ć, d, e, ę, f, g, h, i, j, k, I, ł, m, n, ń, o, 6, p, r, s, ś,
t, u, w, y, z, "i., ż

Each ofwhich
the letters
represents
a thedistinct
sound
ofTheits own,
apart from
ótails
and
represent
exactly
same
sound.
two
letters
with
represent a succession of two sounds.
u,
(z ogonkiem)

can

How to u se this book

XVii

Sometimes
pair ofletters
(you'
ll find aa more
detailedrepresents
explanationa single
ofhowsound:
these are pronounced lasz.ter
in Unit
(emphasis,
accent)likealmost
alwayswherefallstheonaccent
the lastissyllable
butthe one
ofStress
a
word.
Exceptions
Ameryka,
put
on
third
syllable
from
the
end
[
a
-me-ry-ka],
abbreviations
and
certain
verb
forms
be noted in Unit
Points to bear in mind:
Polish stresssyl(emphasis
onpronounced
a particularaspart
of aasword)
is quite
light.
Unstressed
l
a
bles
are
clearly
stressed
ones
(a help when you're learning endings).
The
most important
thingvoice
to remember
aboutthePolish
intonation
is can
that
statements
in
which
your
falls
towards
end
of
a
sentence
be turned into questions just by raising the pitch ofyour voice at the end.
We develop all these points, and more, as we go along in each unit.
eh, cz, dz, dż, rz,

5).

will

9.

�

�

will

xviii

1
Jestem Andrew
l'm And rew
In t h i s u n i t you wi l l learn
how to introduce yourself
how to state your nationality and profession
how to address somebody politely
how to say you are hungry or tired

'To beyouor arenotortoarebe' not,
couldwhatbe anyouralternative
titleis foror isn't,
this unit.
Expressing
who
profession
what
you are like
and
how
you
feel,
are
the
most
useful
basie
sentences
i
n
any
language
and
Polish is no exception.
Youunit youexpress
all ofhow.
theseYouthings
using
just
the
verb
and
in
this
will
learn
wil
l
also
learn
how
addressto greet
Polessomebody
politely. in Polish, how to invite somebody in and how to
can

być to be

Dialogue 7 Dialog pierwszy

Andrewhis Stewart,
a British
detective,
is visiGraj
tingewska,
Poland.a retired
He is trying
to
trace
family
roots.
He'
s
visi
t
i
n
g
Maria
archivist
who
runs ahave
specialist
website
foroverpeople
interestedbutinhavegenealogy.
Andrew
and
Maria
been
in
touch
the
Internet
never
met
face
topastface.andMaria
opens
the
door.
Andrew
has
learned
some
Polish
in
the
is keen to try it out.
Unit 1 Jestem Andrew l'mAndrew

Vocabulary Słówka

Form (as it appea rs)
in the dia logue
dzień
dobry
pa n i
pa n u
jestem
ba rdzo
Ba rdzo mi m iło.
p roszę
wej ść

Basic form
(d ictionary form)

English tra ns lation
day
good
Madam!Mrs/Ms, Jady
Sir/Mr, gen tleman
l'm
very
Pleased to meet you.
please
come in/go in

pan
być to be
ja, m iły
p rosić > po p rosić*

*Many Polishforms.
verbsAlthough
have two 'itversions'
to reflect
their
and
is
too
early
in
the
course
to
explain
exactly whatboxes
theseright
formsfrom
are, thetheystart.
wil beThenevertheless
indicated
in ve
Vocabulary
rule
is
that
the
imperfecti
form appearsform.firstItwiwitlhl allthebecome
arrowhead
symbol
> pointing
towards theand
perfective
elear
in
Unit
where
perfective
imperfective forms are explained in detail .
perfective

imperfective

12

N
a:

. . . . . . ... ... ... . . . .... ... . . . ....... . . .. ... . . . ... ... . . . ... .... . . ..

: Andrew

�
...

c
u

�

•

Marla
Andrew
Marla

Dzień dobry pani.
Jestem Andrew Stewart.
Dzień dobry panu.
Jestem Maria Grajewska.
Bardzo mi miło.
Proszę wejść.

Good morning, (madam).
/'m Andrew Stewart.
Good morning, (sir).
/'m Maria Grajewska.
Pleased to meet you.
Do come in.

CD1 , TR 2, 01.3 4

A lotforof typical
surnames end in or for men and or
women.Polish
For example:
Po l i s h s u rn a m es

-ski

-cki

-eka

Toma sz G rajewski
Lech Ka czyń ski
Krzysztof Ki eślowski
Edwa rd Forsycki
2

Ma ria Grajewska
Ewa Kaczyń ska
Barbara Ki eśl ows ka
Da n u ta Forsyc ka

-ska

:

Polish distinguishes
giving
them differentmasculine
endings. and feminine sumames like these by
Polesother
maintain
three broad levels offormality in the way they address
each
by name:
The most formal
very officia!,
or
sumameof toall,address
peopleusing
they don't know.
H ow to a d d ress Po les by n a m e

1

pan Sir

pani

Ms/Mrs +

pa n (Jan) G rajewski/pa n i (Maria) G rajewska

2

Less formal,theyquiteknowneutral,
usingare not close friends
first nameor reltoaaddress
somebody
but
they
tives,
or haven't gat permission to address them by their first name.
Colleagues at work would often use this form.
Informal,
usingform,
just totheaddress
first name,
often intheyits diminuti
ve to,
(aff
e
ctionate)
somebody
rel
a
ted
or know very well, or in the case ofyoung children.
pan/pani +

pa n Ja n/pa n i Ma ria

3

are

Ma ri a/Ma rysia/Ma rysi eń ka
Ba rba ra/Basia/Basień ka
Małgorzata/Małg osia/Go si a/Gośka
Ja n/Janek/J a siek/Ja ś
An d rzej/Jędrek

Andrew
uses
when
addressing
Maria.
Theyis andotitappropriate
really know
eachto
other
yet
and
sayi
n
g
'
G
ood
morning
mad.am'
thing
do. (Not
thatoccur
English
usesto remind
or you thatmuch,
butindicates
in this book
thoseand
two
words
a
lot,
Polish
gender,
that the form being used in Polish is not the familiar one.)

Pan a n d Pani

pani

sir

madam

Dialogue 2 Dialog drugi

AndrewHecomes
Mariaalsoinvienquires
tes him toifhe'sit sdown
tired.
is, a bit.in.PaniPaniMaria
hungry.and asks ifhe's
Unit 1 Jestem Andrew l'mAndrew

Vocabulary Słówka

Form (as it appea rs)
in the dia logue
u siąść
czy

Basic form
(d ictionary form)
siadać > u si ąść

jest
zmęczony
ta k
trochę
a
głod ny
nie

być
męczyć > zmęczyć

*From naw on,
�

e

�

will be abbreviated to

to sit down
word used to introduce
a yes/no q uestion
he!she!it* is
tired
yes
a little bit
and/b ut
h un gry
no/not

s/he/it.

...... .................................... ... ... ... ... ... ........

e: : Marla
,..,

he/she/it

English tra ns lation

•

Andrew
Marla
Andrew

Proszę usiąść.
Czy jest pan zmęczony?
Tak, trochę.
A czy jest pan głodny?
Nie. Nie jestem głodny.

Please sit down/Do sit down.
Are you tired?
Yes, a bit.
And are you hungry?
No. l'm not hungry.

Dialogue 3 Dialog trzeci

Pani Mariaor Scottish.
is curious as to Andrew's nationality. She asks whether he's
English
Vocabulary Słówka

Form (as it appea rs)
in the dia logue
Szkotem
czy

4

Basic form
(d ictionary form)
Szkot

Engl ish trans lation
Scot(sman)
or; is also used to
introduce a q uestion
with a yes/no answer

:

•

i
Ang l i kiem
Pol ką
szkockie korzen ie

: Maria

Ang l i k
Pol ka
szkocki , korzeń

Czy jest pan Szkotem czy
Anglikiem?
Jestem pół Szkotem i pół
Anglikiem. A pani?
Czy pani jest Polką?
Tak, jestem Polką, ale mam
szkockie korzenie.

and
English man
Polish woman
Scottish roo ts

Areyou Scottish or English?

"IS'
a:

/'m halfScottish and half
English. And (what about)
you? Are you Polish?
Yes, l'm Polish, but l've got
Scottish roots.

c
u

• • • • • • ••••• •• •• • • • • • • • • • • • • •••••••••• •• • •• • ••• • •• • •• • ••• • •• • •• • •

: Andrew
.

: Maria

ł-:_
...

�

Dialogue 4 Dialog czwarty

Andrew wants to know what Pani Maria does for a living.
Vocabulary Słówka

Form (as it appea rs)
i n the dia logue
Czym się pa n/pani
zajmuje?
emerytką
prywa tnym
detektywem
nap rawdę

Basic form
English tra ns lation
(dictionary form)
What doyou dofor a living?/
What areyou doing?
emerytka
retired wo man
prywat ny
private
detektyw
detective
really

Czym się pani zajmuje?
Jestem emerytką. A pan?
Jestem prywatnym
detektywem.
Naprawdę?

............. . . . .. ... . ...... . . . .. ... . . .. . ........ . . ........ . ... . .

: Andrew
: Maria

: Andrew
.

: Maria

What do you do (for a living)?
/'m retired. And you?
/'m a private detective.

:
:

•

""

a:

�
8

�
Really?

Unit 1 Jestem Andrew l'mAndrew

5

Listen to the dialogues several times until you feel confident you
understand
them
weltol.beDon'tjustfeela string
disheartened
when,zabilenitsounds.
ially, the
conversation
seems
of
unrecogni
Afterword
listening
toandtheanother
text several
timesAfteryoua few
willmore
begintimes
to hearyouwhen
one
ends
begins.
will
befeelableconfident
to understand
everything
that
is
said.
And
fi
n
all
y
,
you
will
enough to repeat whole sentences.

.....................................................................................................

lnsight

......................................................................................................

Let's practise
�
�
�
�

SeparatethePolish
from(both
EnglishPolishtranslations.
Copy
dialogues
and English parts) onto individual
pieces
of
paper.
Mix the pieces and reconstruct the dialogues (again both parts)
correctly.
Mix
the
pieces
again
and
reconstruct
only
the
Polish
side
of
the
dialogues.

How the l anguage wo rks
Wo rd e n d l ngs

Basic sentences
like
(woman),
(man)
and principles
(woman)
i
l
lustrate
one
of
the
fundamental
of Polish:
that inwords
havetodiothers
fferentinendings.
These endings
show what a
word
is doing
relation
the sentence.
Let me explain.
Words like and
areworld
nouns.phenomena,
Nouns are concepts
used, for
example,
to
refer
to
things,
animals,
natural
and people. Other examplesetc.of nouns
in English
arebelong to one of three
In
Polish,
nouns
genders: masculine, feminine or neuter.
Jestem Anglikiem I'm an EngUshman, Jestem Polką
I'm Polish
Jestem zmęczony I'm tired
Jestem
głodna I'm hungry

detektyw (detective), emerytka (retired woman), Polka
(Polish woman)
Anglik (En gUshman)

book, tiger, volcano,

happiness, teacher, l.aughter,

6

For example,
re a woman
Polish,nationality
your nationality
Ifyou areyou'a man
and Polish,andyour
noun winoun
ll be will be
The ending of: these words change ifyou use them with a word like
if

Pollca.

Polak.

will

Jestem (I'm )

Jestem Pol ką.
Jestem Pola kiem.
Jestem An giel ką.
Jestem An g l i kiem.

l'm Polish. (woman)
l'm Polish. (man)
l'm English. (woman)
l'm English. (man)

As you insee,languages
Polish distinguishes
'gthat
enders'it is. Thenot main
thing
toofrealize
about
gender
like
Polish
is
just
a
matter
sex.
In
Polish, not on1y people have gender; things are also masculine, feminine
or neuter, depending
on whatandwordso isis used to refer butto them. For example,
is
masculine
and
are neuter.
How
doMore
you recognize
whether
aitsnoun
is masculine,
femininenouns
or
neuter?
often
than
not,
by
ending.
Most
masculine
end in a consonant
(represented
by aendletterin otherandthanmosttheneuter
vowelnouns
letters
most
feminine
nouns
end in or
The
gender
also dictate
howto nouns
other because
words, such
asareadjectives,
behave.
Adj
e
ctives
are
closely
related
they
the
words
that a
modify the meaning of nouns: a house, a car, a detective,
woman,
etc.themselves
In fact, adjtoectives
workofsotheclosely
withtheynouns
that in
Polish
they
adapt
the
gender
nouns
accompany.
So if theif thenounnounis masculine,
thetheadjecti
ve willis also
also inbeitsin feminine
its masculine
form;
is
feminine,
adj
e
ctive
form,
and
so
on.
This
is
what
you
saw
happening
with
Mr
Kowalski
and
Mrs Kowalska;
to aexplaining
Pole, they toobviously
haveectives
the same
surname,
a fact
which
might
need
others.
Adj
in
their
masculine
typically
in adjformectives
adjformectives
in theirendneuter
end inin-e.their feminine form end in and
księżyc (moon)
mleko (milk)

piwo (beer)

all

a, e, i, o, u, y),
-o -e.

statek (ship)

radio (radio),

-a,

will

big

new

tired

hungry

-y,

-a

Unit 1 Jestem Andrew l'mAndrew

Andrew is a man, so he introduces and describes himself like this:
Jestem Anglikiem.
Jestem detektywem.
Jestem zmęczony.

l'm English.
l'm a detective.
l'm tired.

On the other hand, if pani Maria were English, retired and tired she
would say:
Jestem Angielką.
Jestem emerytką.
Jestem zmęczona.

l'm English.
l'm retired.
l'm tired.

Tobe być

In the dialogues you've come across two forms of the verb być to be:
jestem (I am) and jest (s!he!it is). But what about the rest? Here's
the full set. Pronouns (I, you, he, etc.) are given to help you match

themon1yto theneedverbto forms,
alreadyit, asmeans
you
ineludebutif you wantfor example,
to emphasize
in ;
This ismayparticularly
relevant
in the case
ofthe he,s/he/itsheforms,
where
the
context
not
make
elear
whether
you
mean
or it;
the
inelusion
of
or
wi
l
elear
up
(and
even
emphasize)
which you mean.
jestem,

I am
Its me

ja

thats Polish.

on, ona

ono

• CD1 , TR 6

ja

jestem

am

ty

you

jesteś

are

on

he

jest

is

ona

she

jest

is

*ono

it

jest

is

pan, pa n i

you (sir,
madam)

jest

my

we

jesteśmy

wy

yo u

jesteśc ie

Jestem zmęczo ny/
zm ęczona.
l am tired.
Jesteś zmęczo ny/
zm ęczona.
Yo u are tired.
On jest zmęczony.
He is tired.
Ona jest zm ęczona.
She is tired.
Ono jest zmęczone.
ft is tired.
Pa n jest zm ęczony.
Yo u (sir) are tired.
Pa n i jest zmęczona.
Yo u (madam)
are tired.

are Jesteśmy zmęczeni/
zmęczo ne.
We are tired.
are Jesteście zmęczeni/
zmęczo ne.
Yo u are tired.

Unit 1 Jestem Andrew l'mAndrew

9

*on i

they
(including
masculines)
*one
they (no t
including
masculines)
pa nowi e gen tlemen

pa n i e,
ladies,
pa ń stwo yo u
(gen tlemen,
ladies, ladies
& gen tlemen)

są

are Oni są zmęczen i .
They are tired.

są

are One są zmęczon e.
They are tired.

są
są

Pa n owie są zmęczone.
Yo u are tired,
gen tlemen.
Yo u are tired, ladies.
are Pa n i e są zm ęczen i .
are Pa ń stwo s ą zmęczen i .
Yo u are tired, (ladies
and gen tlemen).

*The
pronoun
is
u
sed
for
any
neuter
person
(
e.
g
.
is a neuter noun) or object.
is either used for a group of men or a group of men and women.
is used only for a group of women.
ono

Oni

One

a

child; dziecko

-O CD1 , TR 7

Liste n a n d repeat
Maria Grajewska

Andrew Stewart

Ang]ooem/Angielą
English (man)/
English(woman)

Polakiem/Polką
Polish(man)l(woman)

głodny/głodna
lnmgry (manlwoman)

wejść
come

in

� -··
Please
(+ verb)
•••

Unit 1 Jestem Andrew l'mAndrew

11

-O CD1 , TR 8

Pronunciation g uide Jak to wymówić?

Polish hassentences
acquiredsuch
a reputation
through
as: for notoriously difficultThispronunciation
is ainfamous
Polish
tongue
twister,
which
for
many
years
held
the
top
spot
the
Guinness
World
Records
for
the
most
diffi
c
ult
sentence
for
English
native
speakers.
However,
the factto theis thatuninitiated
there areand
plentydo:tioft words
in
Polish
that
don't
look
terrifying
cause
English
speakers any problems at all.
W Szczebrzeszynie chrząszcz brzmi w
trzcinie (In Szczebrzeszyn a beetl.e buzzes in the reeds).

Llste n a n d repeat
pro b lem problem
kot cat
la m pa lamp
ka ted ra cathedra/
okn ow indow
rad i o radio

telefo n telephone
kom p uter computer
mama mum
tato dad
brat bro ther
n u m er n umber

d o kument documen t
mapa map
p l a n plan
d o m house
b i l et ticket

One
of theisreasons
whyPolish
manyletters
wordsaredo:tipronounced
t po se any pronunciation
problems
that
some
much like their
English counterparts:
b, d, f, g, k, I, m, n, p, s, t, z

worth
be pronouncedis withoutnot
theIfs[P-holska]!
puff ofremembering
air that usuallythatfollowsandthemshould
in English.
ofThethesound
word in Polish is generally similar to the sound at the beginning
p, t

k

Poland

1

littl.e.

12

Polska,

.....................................................................................................

Throughout this book you'll be using a technique to help you absorb
new
words
and
phrases.
Thecards
ideaoris just
to copy
thepaper,
wordsandandstickphrases
onto
sti
c
ky
notes,
or
index
plain
them
onto
any surface
as a fridgebeordispl
a cupboard
anywhere
where thesuchwords
ayed andorseena corkeveryboardday.-

lnsight

can

To b e ...

Andrew is a nationalities
detective andandMariaconditions?
is retired, but what about other
professions,
A ng l i k
Angiel ka
(English)
Szkot
Szkot ka
(Sco ttish)
Wa l ijczyk Wa l ijka
(Welsh)
I rl a n dczyk I r la nd ka
(lrish)
Pol a k
(Pole)

Po l ka

leka rz
(doctor)
a ktor
(actor)
stu dent
(studen t)

l eka rka

zm ęczony zmęczona
(tired)
a ktor ka
głod ny
głodna
(h ungry)
st udentka zajęty
zajęta
(b usy)
p racowi ty p racowi ta
(hard
working)
dobry
dobra
(go od)

... o r n o t to be

Negation
in Polish
worksLook
simplyat theandfollowing
consistentlexamples:
y. Most of the time you
putnie before
the verb.
Jestem zmęczony/n a .
Nie jestem zmęczony/na .
Jestem Wa l ijczykiem.
Nie jestem Wa l ijczykiem.

l'm tired (man/woman).
l'm not tired.
l'm Welsh (a Welshman).
l'm not Welsh.

Unit 1 Jestem Andrew l'mAndrew

13

Ex p ress l n g a perso n's n a tl o n a l l ty

You will rather
have noticed
thatectives
nationality
nouns like and
than
adj
like
used when identify ing someone by nationality:

andare

Polak, Szkot
polski, szkocki
angielski

Anglik,

Jestem Ameryka n i nem.
Jestem Pola kiem.

l'm (an) American.
l'm Polish./l'm a Pole.

Test yo u r self

Exercise 1

Complete the following sentences by choosing the correct ending.
a Ewa says: Jestem (Polakiem/Polką).
Patricksays:
says:Jestem
Jestem(pracowi
(Irlandczyki
em/Irlandką).
Maria
t
y/pracowita).
Tom says: Jestem (zajęty/zajęta).
b

c

d

Exercise 2

Choose the correct form.
a Pani Maria is tired: Jest głodna/Zlllęczona/zmęczony.
Andrew
Angielką/Anglikiem.
Pani Mariais English:
is retired:JestJestSzkotem/
emerytem/emerytką/detektywem.
b

c

Exercise 3

at the endings
following words and say whether each one
isLookmasculine,
feminineof theor neuter.
lampa samochód
radiodom telefon
herbata
kobieta
dziecko
autobus
tramwaj
tulipan mapa piwo
l.amp,
woman,
tulip,

14

car,
radio,
child,
house,
map,
beer

telephone,
bus,

tea,
tram,

Exerdse 4

Translate the following
sentences
into
Polish
andyourpractise
the
pronunciation
by
saying
them
out
loud.
Check
pronunciation
by playing the recording.
a Good morning/afternoon.
Pleased
to Grajewska.
meet you.
I'Please
m Maria
come
in.
Please
sit
down.
Arem notyouhungry.
tired, sir?
I'Are
you Scottish, English or Polish? (to a man)
What
do you do for a living? (to a woman)
j I'm retired. (a woman)
I'm English and a private detective. (a man)
b

c

d

e

f
g
h
I

k

Exerdse 5

Chooseanswer
the correct
form in the sentences below. Again, try to say the
correct
out loud.
a Maria is Polish. Is she
Andrew
English.Is sheIs he
Maria is isretired.
Maria invites Andrew to come in. Does she say
Polską/Polką/Polak?
Szkotem/Anglikiem/Angielką?
emerytem/emerytką/prywatnym

b

c

d

detektywem?

Proszę wejść/Proszę

wyjść/Proszę usiąść?
� CD 1 , TR 9

Exerdse 6

Respond
in Polish
to thegivfolenlowing
questionsin English.
and statements.
Tothemake
therecording
task easier
we
have
you
prompts
Lis
ten
to
to check your answers.
Unit 1 Jestem Andrew l'mAndrew

15

a
b

Dzień dobry, Jestem Ewa Borowska.
Proszę usiąść.
Czy jest pan zmęczony?
Czym się pan zajmuje?
(Pleased to meet you.)
(Thank you.)

c

d

(Yes, a bit.)

(I'm retired.)

Geographically, Poland is not in Eastern Europe. It is in central
Europe.
Poland iswhen
over the ruling
yearsprince,
old. ItsMieszko
formal creation
the
year
I, decidedwastoinadopt
Christianibonds
ty as thewithofficial
religion
ofhisEurope.
people, thus
establishing
political
the
rest
of
civilized
Gniezno,
a small
town
in
Western
Poland,
was
the
first
capital
of
Poland.
The
wordfrom'Poland'
in Latin'Polanie'
and who used
in Polish
comes
the
name
of
the
tribe
to
inhabit
western
intheopen
fields'part. of today's country. It u sed to mean 'people living

D i d you kn ow?
�
�

1,000

966

�

- Polonia

Polska

2
To jest mój pies, Azor
Th i s i s my d og, Azo r
I n t h i s u n i t you wi l l learn
how to introduce others
how to talk about family
how to ask about and deser/be people, animaIs and objects

You
naw know
howIn tothisintroduce
yourself;
it's time
to descri
learn how
to
introduce
others.
unit
you'
l
l
also
learn
how
to
b
e
people,
animals and objects.
Dialogue 1 Dialog pierwszy

Andrew
and
Maria
are
tal
k
i
n
g
when
suddenly
Andrew
hears
a
noise.
He turnsiround
and sees
explains
t's her dog,
Azor.a dog coming into the living room. Maria
Vocabulary Słówka

Fo rm in the d i a logue D i ctionary fo rm
to jest
być (to be)
mój
pies
zły

Eng l is h translati o n
this is, it's
my (u sed with m a sc. nou n s)
dog
bad, angry, malicious
(here: agg ressive)

Unit 2 To jest mój pies, Azor This is my dog, Azor

17

I

nie
dobry

no
good

•••••••••••• • •••••••• • •• • ••••••••••••••••• • •••••••••• • •••••••••• • •
Maria
To jest mój pies, Azor.
This is my dog, Azor.
er::
Andrew
Czy to jest zły pies?
Is he an aggressive dog?
�
Maria
Nie! Azor to jest bardzo No!Azor'.5 a very good
0
u .
dobry pies.
dog.
•
Q;

...

„

..................................................................

Dialogue 2 Dialog drugi

Andrew and Maria resume their interrupted conversation. Andrew
shows Maria some family photographs and explains who is in the
photographs.
Vocabulary Słówka

Fo rm in the
dialogue
moja
rodzi na
żona
ład na
có rka
studen tką
stu d i uje
medycynę
Kto?
Kto to jest ?
ojc iec
...
...

er::

�
c
u

�

18

D ictiona ry fo rm

English trans lation

mój

my (fem.)
family
wife
pretty
daugh ter
female studen t
s/he s tudies, is a studen t of
medicine
Who?
Who is it? Who'.5 this/that?
father

ła d ny
st udentka
st ud iować
medycyna

:·······························································:
Andrew
This is my family.
My wife, Jenny.
Maria
She'.5 very pretty.
•

To jest moja rodzina.
Moja żona, Jenny.
Jest bardzo ładna.

•

Andrew
Marla
Andrew
Marla
Andrew

A to jest moja córka, Molly.
Jest studentką.
Co studiuje?

Medycynę.

A kto to jest?

To jest mój ojciec, Thomas.

And this is my daughte'1
Molly. She's a student.
What does she study?
(What subject?)
Medicine.
And who's this?
My father, Thomas.

There
is and
a slightin Polish.
difference
in whatittheusuallwordy means
meansarein
English
In
English
Ifyou
you got. any family?' it's another way of asking: 'Have you
gotasked:any'Hchiaveldren?'
When
you
asklitanya Poleof parents, grandparents, siblings, nieces, nephews
s/he wiandll
start
a
long
cousins, sometimes many times removed.
Although
a
lot
of
Poles
keep
animals,
they
aren't
a
nation
of
great
animal
lovers. Many
kept foron protection
companionship.
That'dogs
s whyarenotices
gates oftenofsay:property rather than
My fa m i l y a n d other a n i m a I s

rodzina family
children.

Czy masz rodzinę? Have you got a family?

Uwaga!
Zły pies!

Attention!
Aggressive (bad/angry/malicious) dog!
(Beware ofthe dog!)

Dialogue 3 Dialog trzeci

Andrewinlooks
people
thematare.the photographs on the wall. He asks Maria who the
Unit 2 To jest mój pies, Azor Thls is my dog, Azor

19

Vocabulary Słówka

Fo rm in the
dialogue
Kto
dzia dek
A to?
Ma ma
N
...
a:
.....
...
c
u

„

�

D ictio nary form

English translation
Who
grandfather
And (what about) this?
Mum

.................................................................

Who is it?
Kto to jest?
This is my grandfather,
To jest mój dziadek,
Tomasz .
Tomasz.
And this?
Andrew A to?
To jest moja mama, Teresa. This is my Mum, Teresa.
Marla
And this? Who'.5 this?
Andrew A to? Kto to jest?
To
jest
mój
ojciec,
Jakub.
Marla
This is my father, Jakub.
.................................................................
.

Andrew
Marla

l······i�;·f9ht••··················································································
Before
you move
listen to and practise the dialogues several
times, until
you feelon,confident.

......................................................................................................

Let's practise
IliIliIliIli-

Ili-

20

Capy
theof paper.
dialogues (both Polish and English parts) anto a small
pieces
Mix the
pieces
and
reconstruct
the dialogues
correctly
(both
parts).
Mix
the
pieces
again
and
reconstruct
the
Polish
side
of
the
dialogues.
Separate
theface
PolishdownandandEnglish
parts ofagain.
the dialogues.
Tum
theup at
Polish
parts
mi
x
them
Tum
them
face
random
and translate
Do the same
exercise wiinttoh English.
the English part of the dialogues.

Yo u know who l'm ta l ki n g a bo u t

Because
Polish verbs have a unique
ending
fors noteachnecessary
person,to use a for
jesteś
for
it
and
so
on,
i
t
'
personal
pronoun
(words
likecanI, you,
he, sheAndrew:
etc.) to know who you'Were
talking
about.
That'
s
why
we
say
about
do:tit have form
to useof the adjasectiveis clearly indicates
formaandmalethe.
masculine
jestem

I,

you, jest fors/he,

Jest głodny.

on, he,

jest

as/he/it (on(a/o))
głodny

.O CD1 , TR 1 3
Liste n a n d repeat

mói pies, Azor
my dog, Azor

mój my (masc.)
ojciec father
dziadek grandfather
mążhusband
syn son

moja my (fem.)
rodzina family

/
To jest

mama mum

It is!I'his is
Co to

córka daughtet'

żonawife

.••

jest?

Wbat is it?

Czy to jest ?
Is this .„?

�

•••

Kto to jest?

/

�

dobry pies
gooddog

Who is it?

�

I

stary dom

ald house

interesujący film
intet'esting film

I

can see them easionlythe. Practise
saying
them out loud. Check the
pronunciation
recording
.
rr;5�;t��·�::����-��������·��:���:·:�-����·�:����=��:�·;�:···········1

.....................................................................................................

Unit 2 To jest mój pies, Azor Thls is my dog, Azor

21

-O CD1 , TR 1 4

How the l anguage wo rks

When
you use(ortheother
Polishforms
wordofto, corresponding
totheEnglish
orbasieitwith
and
a
noun,
staysexample,
in the
dictionary form (traditionally called the nominatinoun
ve). For
In fact, ifs notas inunusual for to be left out, leaving just and a
nominative
Why
then doesinathewordsentence:
like
stay in its and
basiechanges
dictionary
formyou
(nominative)
when
say plays a different role.ItInhappens
because
inyouthesesimply
two sentences
the
first
sentence
'point and
name'
a
noun.
In
the
second
sentence
is
used
to
complement
(complements
complete the meaning
of) omitIn other
words,
inl understand
the first casethe meaning
and
if
you
you
wi
l
l
sti
l
ofsentence
the sentence.
In the second
caseof them is omitted.
complements
andthetheform
is
not
complete
if
one
Traditionally,
(or case) of the noun which plays this role is called instrumental.
So how do I create an instrumental form?
Masculine
nounsendsuchin as or-k): (ending in a consonant) add
(or ifthey
this, that

jest

być)

To jest detektyw (This is a detective).

jest
To angielski detektyw.

to

detektyw
To jest detektyw
Andrew jest detektywem?
detektyw
detektyw
być.
to
jest
detektyw

-iem

detektyw
stu dent
Po lak

-g

detektyw

jest

detektyw

(detective)
(małe student)
(male PoleJ

-em

detektywem
studentem
Polakiem

Feminine (and some masculine exceptions) nouns ending in change to
-a

emerytka
stu dentka
córka
22

(retired female)
(female student)
(daugh ter)

emerytką
st udentką
córką

-ą:

Neuter nouns lose their final in favour of-em (or after and
-o/-e

piwo
ra d i o

-iem

-g

-k):

piwem
rad i em

(beer)
(radio)

� C D1 , TR 1 5

Pronunciation guide Jak to wymówić?
Vowe l s

Polish has nine vowels:
Let's have a closer look at what they represent:
theThe letter
in represents
or a sound midway between the in and
Llsten and repeat the following examples:
The letter represents a sound like in or
Llsten and repeat:
The letter
or represents a elear version of the long sound in
Llsten and repeat:
The letter is like the in or
Llsten and repeat these examples:
a, ą, e, ę, I, o, 6, u, y

�

a

a
bat

a

father

map.

mapa (map), karta (menu),

Ala (female name), lalka (doll).
e

�

e

bet

step.

Ewa (Eve), meta (jinish), Europa (Europe), energia
(energy), emerytka (retiredfemale).
�

keen

i
knees.

i

clean,

bigos (hunters stew), Irena (Irene), i (and), igła (needle).

�

o

o

box

pot.

pot (sweat), policja (police), pogotowie
(emergency service), poczta (post office), lokal (premises), mleko (milk),
woda (water), sok (juice).
Unit 2 To jest mój pies, Azor Thls is my dog, Azor

23

The letters is simi
and larboth
to therepresent
in the same sound, e.g. the in
Listen and repeat the examples:
The letter
away
from therepresents
in a sound like the short in (but further
Listen and repeat:
The tailed nasal
and other
soundnasallikesound.
as in Sometimes
and asthisin is
lengthened
by anletters
m or same
closer
especially
before altogether.
or at the end
of wordsto anendingmorin theSometimes,
second element
disappears
Listen and repeat(pa-re)
the following words:
(bende)
(kempe)(ś-e)
lnsight
Allfindthea board
exercises
inthetherulescourse
be turned
into
a game.
You You
can
and
of
the
game
at
the
end
of
the
book.
will
need
a
board,
a
pawn
and
a
<lice.
You
can
capy
the
sentences
incolour
this exercise
different
accordingantoto theseparate
type ofcards
tasksandtheymarkrelathem
te to. Forin aexample,
theEnglish.
task inYouExercise
relates
tocards
a translation
from
Polish
intoin blue.
can
mark
all
the
with
that
type
oftask
Everytotimedrawyoua blue
landcard
on aand
bluecomplete
square onthethetask.game board you will
need
ó

IJlo

ó

u

Bóg, God,

ou

you.

kubek (mug), ulica (street), ósemka

(the number eight), mucha lfly).
IJlo

y

i

i

bid

bleed).

myć (to wash), być (to be), etykieta (etiquette),
detektyw (detective).
ą

IJlo

n,

ę

o

ng.

box

e

bed,

ł

-ę,

się

I will be, parę

a pair, kępę

onesdf, będę
a clump .

...... ............. ......... ............. ......... ................ ...... ......................... .....

can

1

Test yo u r self

Exercise 1

Translate the following
pronunciation
by sayingsentences
them outinto
laud.Polish and practise the

24

a

b
c

d

e

f
g
h
I

j

k
I

This
my dog,
He's aisvery
goodToffdog.ee.
Is thisit'syour
fami
ly?
Yes,
my
wife
and
daughter.
She'
sly'very
pretty.
Mol
s
a
student.
She studies
medicine.
Who's
this?
This
is
my
grandfather,
Jakub.
Is this isyourit? mum?
What
This is my family.
(twoja)

Exercise 2

Complete the following
sentences.(ThisYouexercisecheckchecks
youryour
answers
and
pronunciation
on
the
recording.
grammatical
knowledge
thegame.) of Polish. You can capy the sentences anto green cards for
a Moja córka jest (medycyna/ładna/zły).
jest mój
moja(pies/żona/zmęczony).
(córka/pies/emerytką).
ToToOnajest
studiuj
e
(oj
c
iec/mama/medycynę).
Azor to bardzo dobry (uwaga/dziadek/pies).
can

b

c

d

e

Exercise 3

Imagine
a photograph
ofnaw
yourintroduce,
immediateandfamidoly.soThink
of howListen
manyto a
fami
l
y
members
you
can
in
Polish.
sample answer on the recording.

-O C D1 , TR 1 6

Exercise 4

Respondyourinanswers
Polish toandthepractice
followingpronunciation
statements andofboth
questions.
Again,
check
questions
and answers by listening to the recording. (This exercise relates to a
Unit 2 To jest mój pies, Azor Thls is my dog, Azor

25

communication
task -you
both Polish sentences and English
prompts
onto yellow
cards forcanthecopygame.)
a Kto to jest?
studiuje twoja córka?
To jest mój ojciec.
Czy to jest zły pies?
b

(This is myfather.)
Co

(She studies medicine.)

c

d

(Pl.eased to meet you.)

(No, its a good dog.)

Nobel Prizes have been won seven times by six different Poles:
-Maria
Skłodowska-Curie
- Physics
--Maria
HenrykSkłodowska-Curie
Sienkiewicz - Literature
- Chemistry
-Władysław
Reymont
Literature
- Lech
Czesław
Miłosz- Peace
- Literature
--Wisława
Wałęsa
Szymborska - Literature
lnsight
Another
way ofcards
expanding
learning
game isquestions
to include
a set of purple
which your
containPolishgenerał
knowledge
English).
such as the one above, can be
a(ingood
sourceAnforinformation
the questions,section,
for example:
How many
many times
Poles have
won
thewonNobel
Prize?Prize?
How
have
Poles
the
Nobel
In whatandcategories
havewasPolesthewon
Prize?
Who
in what year
last thePolishNobelwinner?
In this way you build your own collection of Polish trivia.
D i d you kn ow?

Il>
Il>

Il>

Il>
Il>

Il>

Il>

1903
1905
1911
1924
1980
1983
1996

..................... ...................... ...................... ............... .....................

1
2
3
4

can

26

3
Jestem szczęśliwy - mam czas i
pie n iądze
l'm ha p py - l've got ti m e a n d

m o ney
I n t h i s u n i t you wi l l learn
how to say you have or haven't got something
how to ask if somebody has something
how to say you have got time to do something

In Units
andandyouintroduce
met theorimdescribe
portantyoursel
verb f andwhiothers.
ch allowsInyou
touniexpress
who
you
are
this
leam how to express what you have and ask what others possess. t you
1

2

być

will

Dialogue 1 Dialog pierwszy

Andrew and Maria are talking about Andrew's family in Poland.
Vocabulary Słówka

Form in the dia log ue
ma
w + locative*

D ictionary form
m ieć

E nglish tra nslation
(s!he!it) has
(located) in

Unit 3 Jestem szczęśliwy - mam czas i pieniądze l'm happy - /'ve got time andmoney

w Pol sce
chyba
problem
ja ki
ani
ani
adresu
nazwi ska
żaden
To żaden prob lem.
konta kty
a rchiwu m (neuter)
„ .

Polska

„ .

ad res
nazwi sko

konta kt

*This is explained in the Grammar appendix.
""'
...
a::
.....
...
c
u
....
....

in Poland
I think, I s uppose
problem
what (sort of)
neither . . . nor
address
s urname
n one
lt's no problem at all.
con tacts
archive(s)

.................................................................

Marla

„

.

Andrew
Marla
Andrew
Marla

Czy ma pan rodzinę w
Polsce?
Chyba tak, ale mam
problem .
Jaki problem?
Nie mam ani nazwiska,
ani adresu.
To żaden problem.
Mam kontakty w
Archiwum.

Have you got any family in
Poland?
I think so, but I have a
problem.
What sort ofproblem?
I haven't got either a surname
or an address.
lt's no problem at all.
l've got some contacts at the
Archive.

How t h e l a n g u a g e wo r ks

is interesting
word;
it meansPolish and is best learned through
I
t
'
s
frequentl
y
used
in
colloquial
phrases
as the one used by Maria in the previous dialogue. Here are
some moresuchexamples:
Żaden
all.

an

za żad ne pien iądze/ska rby

Jan n i e ma żad nych p rzyja ciół.
pod żad nym pozorem

28

no, not a singl,e, not any, none at

no way, not for all the tea in
China (o r l ite ra l ly· for no money/
treas ures)
John has no friends at all.
under no circumstances (or l it.
under no appearance)

Dialogue 2 Dialog drugi
Maria needs to get together some more information about Andrew's family.
She asks if hes got time to stay a bit longer and have another cup of tea.
Vocabu/ary Słówka

Form in the dia logue
czas na + acc.
herbatę
dużo
rodzinne
doku menty
fotografie

Dictiona ry form

English tra nslation
time for

herbata

tea
a lot

rodzinny
doku ment
fotografia

family (adj.)
documen ts
photographs

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
.

Ma ria

And rew
Ma ria

Czy ma pan jeszcze
czas na herbatę?
Tak, mam d użo czasu.
Czy ma pan jakieś
rodzinne doku menty ?

Have you stili got time for
(a cup of) tea?
Yes, I have p/enty of time.
Have you got any family
documents?

Unit 3 Jestem szczęśliwy - mam czas i pieniądze /'m happy - /'ve got time and money

oo

...

a:
I�

...

c
u

�
29

And rew
Maria

Tak, mam. Proszę,
to są dokumenty i
fotografie.
Dziękuję.

Yes, I have. Here you are,
these are the documents
and photographs.
Thank you.

Dialogue 3 Dialog trzeci

Whi
le Mari
her fami
ly. a is looking through Andrew's documents, he asks her about
Vocabulary Słówka

Form in the dia log ue
męża
syna
a rchi tektem
dobrą pra cę
pieniądze (pl u ra l )
rodzi ny
dzieci
imię
na emeryturze

�
...

CC:
.....

rodzi na
dzi ecko

na, emerytu ra

Czy pani ma rodzinę?
Tak, mam, męża i syna.
To jest mój syn.
Jest architektem.
Ma dobrą pracę i
pieniądze, ale nie ma
dzieci.
A pani mąż?

English tra ns lation
h usband
son
architec t
a goodjob
money
fa miły
chi/dren
firs t name, Christian
name
on a pension, retired

:······························································:

Andrew
Maria

„

...

c
u

�

Andrew
Maria

30

D ictionary form
mąż
syn
a rch itekt
d obra , p raca

Mój mąż ma na imię Piotr.
Też jest na emeryturze.

Have you got any family?
Yes, I have, a husband and a son.
This is my son .
He's an architect.
He's got a goodjob and money,
but he hasn't any family
(chi/dren).
And (what about) your
husband?
My husband's name is Piotr.
He's also retired.

:

·i;;

�?i��:�·�:��::��·�=:�:�:������-:�·�:�·�=·�:·��·::;�:=����.„.„ „ ]
..

you need until you feel confident.
Start buiandldingphrases.
your own
wordwaycollection.
Ifsbya great
way
oflearning
newin
words
The
best
to
do
it
is
using
index
cards
stored
an index box and arranged alphabetically.
You can allocate different colours to different categories, for example:
nouns
blueblue
adjverbsectives-navy
-light
adverbsred-pink.
Cardsadditional
should bedetails
big enough
information
and
on thetoback.contain
See anbasieexampl
e below: on the front
Word:
English
translation:
Gender:
Examples:masculine
The more you learn, the more information you can add to the card such as:
differentthe examples
what
what the word
plurallooks
formliis,keetc.for different cases
You
add new words or expand the information on words you
alreadycanknow.

..

..... ............. ......... ...................... ......................... ...................... .....

�
�
�

�

detektyw

detective

Jestem detektywem.

�
�
�

Let's practise
�

Copy
dialogues (both Polish and English parts) onto small
piecestheof paper.

Unit 3 Jestem szczęśliwy - mam czas i pieniądze l'm happy - /'ve got tlme andmoney

31

IJil>
IJil>

pieces again
and reconstruct
the dialogues
thethe pieces
and reconstruct
the Polishcorrectly
side of(both
the parts).
dialogues.
Mix
Mix

• C D1 , TR 20
Llste n a n d repeat
na � Maria
(I have) My name is Maria

(+ acc.)
I baw (goi) ...
Czy masz
Czy pan I pani ma
Have you (goi) „ 1
Tak. mam.
Ye.s, I baw.
N'ic. nie mam.
No, I hawn't.
Mam

...

.••

..•

?

•

l�I
Nic: mam
(+ gm.)
I haven't (got) ...
...

dc.>kmncntów
fotografii
rodziny
piempy
psa

dobrc:j pracy
odwty
CZ8lll

IJil>

IJil>
IJil>
IJil>

Separatepartstheface
PolishdownandandEnglish
parts ofagain.
the dialogues.
Polish
mix them
Tum themTurn
face uptheat
random
and translate
into English.
DoArrange
the same
exercise
with
the dialogue
English part
ofcorrect
the dialogues.
the
Polish
side
of
the
in
the
order,looking.
tum
Andrew'
s
part
face
down
and
try
to
speak
his
part
without
Repeat the same exercises with Maria's part.

.O CD1 , TR 2 1

Pronunciation guide Jak to wymówić?
Co n so n a n ts (pa r t 1 )

-

soft c o n s o n a n ts

Any
letter that
does not The
represent
a vowelare consonants:
represents
a consonant.
following

(a, ą, e, ę, i, o, ó, u, y)

all

b, c, ć, d, f, g, h, j, k, I, ł, m, n, ń, p, r, s, ś, t, w, z, ź, ż

We'
mentioned that the following are produced much the same
wayvase already
in English:
b, d, f, g, k, I, m, n, p, s, t, z

So what's left is:

c, ć, g, h, j, ł, ń, r, ś, w, ż, ź

The letteroutsnormally
represents
as inthe finalIts name
is [tse]
(likrepresent
e
English
etbut
without
the
and
which
we
can
thePolesPolish
way:
[ce].sound,English
earsthe perceive
thisthe name
as two sounds,
but forThe
it'
s
a
single
as
in
middle
of
(ja-tsek).
name
ofbefore
the letteror[ce] These
reflectsthree
the way
the letter is pronounced
unless
it
comes
combinations
and
will
be
covered separately.
c

ts
ou

cats.

t),
ts

Jacek

h, i

z.

-

eh, ci

cz

-

Unit 3 Jestem szczęśliwy - mam czas i pieniądze l'm happy - /'ve got tlme andmoney

33

The letter j normally represent the same sound as the in English
The letter
now normally
represents
aEnglish
sound like theThis
Englishletter does
most
Poles
now
pronounce
it
like
the
in
not
have a strong
you mayfastwellpronounces
get the impression asit has[chciaa].
disappeared
whensound,
someoneandspeaking
The letter represents
a rolledScots(triEnglish.
lled) asIfyou'
in Russian
or Spanish
orthis
old-fashioned
stereotypical
r
e
unable
to
make
sound,thisbetoaware
that on.a few Poles pronounce it like a French so you
have
fall back
The letter represents the same sound as an English
consonants
are divided
intois which?
two groups:
hardtoand
softconsonant
consonants.
Sothehow
do
you
know
which
The
clue
a
soft
is
accent above the letter, so the following letters are soft consonants:
y

yes.

ł

w;

w

mower.

chciała

r

r,

r,

w

v.

All

ć, ń, ś, ź.
Il>
Il>
Ili>
Ili>

ć
ń
ś
ź

isis lilikkee theinfirst in
isis lilikeke in
(said quickly).
eh

cheap
n(i) union
sh sheep
s in please yourself

Llste n a n d repeat
ćma
mo th
koń
horse
środ ek
middle/cen tre
źródło
spring!source

How the l anguage wo rks
I n t ro d u et i o n s

Talking about her husband, Maria
says Mój mążthe second way
thus demonstrating
ma

My husband's na me is Piotr,

34

na imię Piotr

offirstintroducing
name: yourself or someone else ifyou are using just the
you
he
she
you, po lite

Ma m na i m ię Ja mes.
Jak masz n a i m ię?
Ma na i m ię Stefa n .
Ma na i m ię Ba rba ra .
Pa n ma na i m ię Robert ?
Pa n i ma na imię Anna?

My (first) name's James.
What's your first name?
His name's Stefan.
Her name's Barbara.
Is your firs t name Robert?
Is your firs t name Anna?

'J estem e m e ryte m/e m e rytką' /'m retired vs. 'J estem n a
e m e rytu rze' ( l it.: /'m on a retiremen t pension)

In Polish there are two ways of saying you're retired:
Jestem emerytem/emerytką.
Jestem na emerytu rze.

l'm a retired (man/woman).
(lit.) /'m on a (retiremen t) pension.

Jestem renci stą/renc i stką.
Jestem na ren cie.

l'm a retired (man/woman).

If you'vore been
for health
reasons and you are entitled to a special
health
medicalretiredpension,
you say:
in Polish is used in similar contexts as in English to express
possession:
Mieć

Ma m cza s.
Ma m sa mochód .
Ma m rodzinę.

I have time.
I have a car.
I have a family.

Ma m dwa dzieścia lat.
On ma trzydzieści lat.
Ma ria ma sześćdziesiąt p ięć lat.
Ma m ochotę na herbatę.
Ma ria ma oc hotę na spa cer.

I am twen ty (years old).
He is thirty (years old).
Maria is sixty-five (years old).
I fancy some tea.
Maria fancies a walk.

Unliketo express
in English,whathowever,
and
you fancy:it is also used to describe how ald people are

Unit 3 Jestem szczęśliwy - mam czas i pieniądze l'm happy - /'ve got tlme andmoney

35

� C D1 , TR 22
The h aves a nd the h ave nots

The verb

mieć to have

looks like this in the present tense:

(ja)

mam

(ty)

masz

(wy)

On/ona/ono ma
rodzinę. S/he!it/
madam!sir has a family.
Ma my rodzi nę. We have
a family.
mac i e you (fa m i l ia r)
Ma cie rodzi n ę. Yo u have
have
a family.
mają they, gen tlemen, On i/on e/pa n i e/
ladies, ladies
pa nowie pa ń stwo
and gen tlemen, mają rodzi n ę. They
have
have a family.

l have

you (fa m i l ia r, to
one person)
have
(o n, ona, ono); ma
s/he!it has; yo u
pa n, pa n i
(pol ite m ./f.)
have
(my)
mamy we have

(o n i , one),
pa nowi e,
pa n i e,
pa ń stwo

Ma m rodzi nę. / have a
family.
Ma sz rodzi nę. You have
a family.

More a bo u t h av l n g - t h e accusatlve o r h ow
to be affl r m a t lve

Forms of are completed or complemented by a 'direct object'. In
Polish object)
you can'twilljustbehave,
have vtoe have
something.
The something
direct
in theyouaccusati
case; 'that'
s the traditional
term for(orit.
Let's have a look at some examples from the course so far:
mieć

[J a]
And rew
Ma ria

Ma m
ma
ma

d oku ment.
cza s.
rodzi n n e fotog rafie.

/'ve got a documen t.
Andrew has got time.
Maria has family
pho tographs.

Thesearesentences
examples
accusatiandve rule
sincethe
they
affirmatiareve (they
are notof thenegatiaffivremative
or questions)
we used
accusative form.
We wil return to discuss accusative forms in Unit
6.

To h a v e n o t ! - t h e negative g e n i tive r u l e

But
why
does
it
matter
if
the
sentence
is
affirmati
v
e
or
negati
v
e?
It
matters
because
when youit changes
negate afrom
verb thelikeaccusative
in Polish,
object
complementing
to thethegenitidirectve form:
mieć

Mam dokum ent. (I have a
documen t.J
And rew ma cza s. (Andrew has
time.)
Mam rodzi n n e fotog rafie.
(I have family photos.J

N ie m a m dokumentu. (I haven't
a documen t.J
And rew n i e ma cza su. (Andrew
hasn't time.)
N ie m a m rodzi n nych fotografi i .
(I haven't family pho tos.J

...... ................ ...... ................ ......... ...................... ..........................

Someasofamytravelstudents
benefit
fromtravelimagining
the verb
l
er
who
cannot
alone
-who
must
have
anegati
companion,
ve genitieither
ve. a happy, positive accusative or a grumpy,
So how do I create a genitive form?
Masculine nouns ending in a consonant typically add or
lnsight

m leć to

have

-u

d o kument
cza s
d etektyw
kot

(documen t)
(time)
(detective)
(cat)

d oku ment
cza s
d etektywa
kota

-a:

d oku mentu
cza su
d etektywa
kota

Unit 3 Jestem szczęśliwy - mam czas i pieniądze l'm happy - l've got time andmoney

37

You'
ll have noticed
fromvthee lookexamples
sometimes
the ve
nominative
and accusati
identicalabove
andthatsometimes
the accusati
and genitive look identical. So whafs the rule?
For
animate masculine
nouns accusative.
(person, an animal or a living thing
e.Forg. inanimate
genitive
masculine
nounsve(objects,
e.g.
nominati
accusatithings
ve. that are not alive
Feminine
changenouns
to -gitypically
and change from to Those which end and
1111-

detektyw/kot:)

=

1111-

dokument/czas)

=

-a

-ka

-

y

.

-ga

-ki.

żo na
rodzi n a
fotog rafi a
córka
książka

(wife)
(family)
(pho to)
(daugh ter)
(book)

żo nę
rodzi n ę
fotog rafię
cór kę
ksi ążkę

żony
rodzi ny
fotog rafi i
córki
ksi ążki

Neuter nouns
instead
of the lookor much like masculine nouns with the genitive in
-o

dziecko
p i wo
wino
m leko

-e.

(chi/d)
(beer)
(wine)
(milk)

dziecko
piwo
wi no
m l eko

dziec ka
p iwa
wi n a
m l eka

-a

� C D1 , TR 23

Pronunciation guide Jak to wymówić?
Co n so n a n ts (pa r t 2)

In Polish there

are

16

-

hard conso na nts

hard consonants:

b, c, d, f, g, h, k, I, m, n, p, r, s, t, z. ż

Let's practise them by listening and repeating the following words
outloud:
Liste n a n d repeat

d obry

go od

kto

pani
pan
ba rdzo

lady
to
gen tleman medycyna
very
st udentka

p roszę
wejść
trochę
zmęczony
głod ny

please
come in
a bit
tired
hungry

córka
żona
mama
brat
herbata

who

kla sa

class/
classroom
gazeta
newspaper
doku ment documen t
fotog rafi a photograph

this, it
medicine
female
s tuden t
daughter żaden
wife
kon ta kty
Mum
problem
bro ther
a rc h iwum
tea
kawa

no, none
contacts
problem
archive
coffee

Test yo u r self

Exerdse 1

Translate
thepronunciation
following sentences
intothePolish
and asDon't
usual becheckshy:your
answers
and
by
using
recording.
say your
answers
out
loud!
If
you
want
to
add
new
cards
to
your
language
game,
the following sentences belong to the translation category (blue cards).
Unit 3 Jestem szczęśliwy - mam czas i pieniądze l'm happy - /'ve got tlme andmoney

39

a

b
c

d

e

f
g
h
I

j

iO

I'I'vvee gat
ly in Poland.
gat fami
a problem.
IHave
fancyyousamegattea.any contacts at the Archives?
I'vhaven't
gatoftime.
IHave
e plenty
time.
you
gat
anyadocuments?
(to a woman)
My
daughter
has
good
job.
II'mhave a(years
dog, Rex.
ald).
20

CD1 , TR 24

Exercise 2

Respondyourinanswers
Polish toandthepronunciation
following statements
andquestions
questions.andAgain,
check
for
both
answers
onquestions
the recording.
This
is
a
communication
exercise
so
you
can
add the
to the yellow category of cards.
a Czy ma pan rodzinę w Polsce?
Mam problem.
Czy ma pani czas na herbatę?
Czy ma pan ochotę na herbatę?
b

(I think so.)

(What sort ofproblem?)

c

d

(Yes, I've got wts of time.)

(Yes I have.)
Exercise 3

Tum
the theaffirnecessary
mative sentences
into
negatiappropriate.
ve ones. Please
rememberteststoyour
make
changes
where
This
exercise
grammatical skills so you can add them to the green category of cards.
a Mamczas.
Mam dobrą
rodzinę.pracę.
Mam
Mój syn jest architektem.
all

b

c

d

40

e

f

g
h

Mam
Andrewpieniądze.
ma dokumenty i fotografię.
Mająpsa.
ToOnajestjestmójbardzo
ojciec.ładna.

Exercise 4

The
following
sentences
gi
v
e
the
answer
to
a
question.
What
would
be
totheaddquestion?
it to theThisyellowis another
category.communication exercise so you may want
Example:
A:Q: Tak,
mam czaspan/pani
na herbatę.czas na herbatę?
Czy masz/ma
a Jestem emerytką.
ToNie,jestto mój
ojstciec.mój ojciec. To jest mój dziadek.
nie
j
e
Tak,
mamtodokumenty.
Nie, Azor
dobry pies.
..,. thePoland
was one ofofeducation
the first countries
which officially
importance
for all children.
In recognized
the Polish
Parliament
founded
the
Education
Commission
(Komisja
theinfirst Ministry
of Education
in thethe Hospital
world.
..,. Edukacyjna),
Turo
years
later
the
Parliament
founded
Commission
(Komisj
aoversee
Szpitalna)the first
Ministry
ofHealth
infarethe.
world.
Its
task
was
to
hospitals,
charities,
health
and
wel
..,. Poland
the firsttocountry
inwriEurope
(and secondTheinPolish
the worldParlafter
theadopted
Unitwasedit onStates)
adopt
a
t
ten
constitution.
May and it was called the May Constitution.iament
b

c

d

e

O l d you kn ow?

1773,

1775,

3

1791

3

category��-:questions
(purple
cards).
iri·���
�:·:::·��:::·
�����·=:�·:��::��:
·��:::��·�::�:;:��:··········1
........... ......... ............. ......... ...................... ................ ......... ............

Unit 3 Jestem szczęśliwy - mam czas i pieniądze l'm happy - /'ve got tlme andmoney

41

4
Muszę już iść
l've g ot to g o now
I n t h i s u n i t you wi l l learn
how to say you must!have to do something
how to say you don't have to do something
how to tell the time

life when
weTheremustaredomany
and situations
in this uniint youeveryday
wil learn
how towedoneed
this toin express
Polish. what
Dialogue 1 Dialog pierwszy

Andrew looks at his watch. He realizes it has stopped and that he must
have
and hasspentto goa fewnaw.hours with Maria. He still has a lot of things to sort out
Vocabulary Słówka

Form in the
dia log ue
przep ra sza m
która godzi na?
czwa rta
niestety

42

D ictionary form

English tra nslation

p rzep ra szać >
p rzeprosić
który, g odzina
czwa rty

sorry, excuse me, I apologize
what's the time (which hour?)
fo ur o'clock (the fo urth ho ur)
unfortunately, sadly

m u szę
już
i ść
m u szę już i ść
ojej
szkod a

musieć

I m us t/l have to
a/ready, now
to go
I m ust go nowi/ have to go now
oh dear
pity, was te

Przepraszam, która godzina?
Czwarta.
Niestety, muszę już iść.
Ojej, szkoda.

:·······························································:

Excuse me, what's the time?
lt's four o'clock.
Unfortunate/y, I have to go.
Oh dear, that's a pity.
•. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Andrew
Marla
Andrew
Marla

•

-O CD1 , TR 26

""
N
a::
1„

0
�

u

Tel l ing the time

To say what the time is, Poles use 'the ... th hour':
Llste n a n d repeat
1 :OO
(Jest) (godzina) pierwsza .
2 :00

(Jest) (godzina) d ruga .

3 :00

(Jest) (godzina) trzecia.

4:00

(Jest) (godzina) czwa rta .

5 :00

(Jest) (godzina) p iąta .

6:00

(Jest) (godzina) szósta .

7:00

(Jest) (godzina) siódma.

8:00

(Jest) (godzina) ósma.

(lt's) one (o'clock).
'lt's the firs t hour.'
(lt's) two (o'clock).
'lt's the second ho ur.'
(lt's) three (o'clock).
'lt's the third ho ur.'
(lt's) fo ur (o'clock).
'lt's the fo urth ho ur.'
(lt's) five (o'clock).
'lt's the fifth ho ur.'
(lt's) six (o'clock).
'lt's the sixth hour.'
(lt's) seven (o'clock).
'lt's the seventh ho ur.'
(lt's) eight (o'clock) .
'lt's the eighth ho ur.'

Unit4 Muszę już iść rve gotto go now

43

9:00

(Jest) (godzina) dziewiąta.

(lt's) nine (o'c/ock).

1 0:00

(Jest) (godzina) dziesiąta.

(lt's) ten (o'c/ock).

1 1 :00

(Jest) (godzina) jedenasta.

(lt's) e/even (o'c/ock).

1 2:00

(Jest) (godzina) dw unasta.

(lt's) twe/ve (o'c/ock). '

'lt's the ninth hour.'
'lt's the tenth hour.'
'lt's the e/eventh hour:
lt's the twelfth hour.'

To say lts one o'clock, it's usually sufficient to just say Pierwsza. However,
it's also perfectly correct to use any of the following forms:
Godzina pierwsza.
Jest godzina pierwsza.
Jest pierwsza.

44

Dialogue 2 Dialog drugi

Andrew tries to explain what he still has to do.
Vocabulary Słówka

Fo rm in the
dia logue
d laczego
musi pan
wrócić do + gen.
załatwi ć
kilka
spraw
wymienić
pieniądze (plura l)
zadzwonić
do
domu
hotel u
rozpa kowa ć si ę

D ictionary form

English tra nslation

wracać > wrócić
załatwi ać > załatwić
sprawa
wym ien iać > wymien i ć

dzwon i ć >
zadzwonić
dom
hotel
rozpa kowywać się >
rozpa kowa ć się

potem

why
yo u mus t
come/go back to
deal with, do, settle
a few, severa/
thing, matter, problem
change, exchange,
en umerate
money
ring, telephone
to
home, house
ho tel
get unpacked
then, next, afterwards

Dlaczego musi pan iść?
Muszę załatwić kilka spraw.
Muszę wrócić do hotelu
i rozpakować się.
Potem muszę wymienić
pieniądze i zadzwonić
do domu.

· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·

Marla
Andrew

Why do you have to go?
I have to sort out a few things.
I have to return to the hotel
and unpack.
Then I have to exchange
some money and phone
home.

Unit4 Muszę już iść rve gotto go now

:

:

oo

""'

�

�

�
C

�

45

Dialogue 3 Dialog trzeci

Maria can think of at least two more things that Andrew has to do.
Vocabulary Słówka

Fo rm in the dia logue
zwiedzić

D ictionary form
zwiedza ć >
zwi edzić

kon i ecznie
spotkać si ę

spotyka ć się >
spotkać się

znowu
ba rdzo chętn i e

O\

N
a:
1-

„

...

c
u

• Marla

Musi pan też zwiedzić
Kraków.
O tak, koniecznie.
Musimy spotkać się znowu.
Tak. Bardzo chętnie.

E nglish tra nslation
visit, go sightseeing in
necessarily, absolutely
(must)
meet, get together
again
very happily, willingly,
would love to

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Andrew
Marla
Andrew

You also have to (sight)
see Kraków.
Oh yes, absolutely.
We have to meet again.
Yes, l'd love to.

Although
it isandimportant
toconfident
make surethatyouyoulistenunderstand
to the dialogues
several
times
you
feel
them,
don't
be
too
hard
on
yourself
i
f
the
text
seems
too
difficult.
Leavel seemit andso gomuchbackeasier.
to theAfter
previous
dialogues.
Hopeful
ly they
wilwhi
a
whil
e
return
to
the
dialogue
ch youtimestruggled
second
round. with initial y - I'm sure it will seem easier

lnsight

•

Let's practise
Ili>
Ili>
Ili>
Ili>

Ili>
Ili>
Ili>
°*

Capy theof paper.
dialogues (both Polish and English parts) onto small
pieces
MiMixx the
pieces
and
reconstruct
the dialogues
correctly
(both
parts).
the
pieces
again
and
reconstruct
the
Polish
side
of
the
dialogues.
Separate
theface
PolishdownandandEnglish
parts ofagain.
the dialogues.
Turn
theat
Polish
parts
mix
them
Tum
them
face
up
random
and
translate
into
English.
Do the same
exercisesidewithof thethe dialogue
English part
ofcorrect
the dialogues.
Arrange
the
Polish
in
the
order,looking.
tum
Andrew'
s
part
face
down
and
try
to
speak
his
part
without
Repeat the same exercises with Maria's part.

CD1 , TR 30

Pronunciation guide Jak to wymówić?
The d o u b l e l ife of 'I ' or h ow to tu r n a h a rd co n s o n a n t
l n to a s oft o ne

There is more to the vowel than meets the eye. For example, the nouns
all have a hard
consonant
in pani,Thish
inparticular
archiwumcombination
andand(second)meansfin that
fotografia)
which
is
followed
by
it become soft just like the consonantsa hard
withconsonant
an accent.is no longer hard;
If any of theby softHowever,
consonants
are followed bystaysa vowel
then an accent is
replaced
the pronunciation
the same.
Practise by listening to and repeating the following words out loud:
pani, archiwum

i
fotografia

(n

i.

i.

ciało
n iebo

body
sky

dzi eń
dzi ki

day
wild

Unit4 Muszę już iść rve gotto go now

47

cierp ieć
zi arno
widzieć
mi ska
dni
bi ały

sień
łokieć
cień
p i skl ę
l i st
wi otki

to suffer
grain

to see
bowl
days
white

hal/way
elbow
shadow
chick
Jetter
Jimp

How the l anguage wo rks
The ve r b 'm usieć'

Unlike English, with its choice of and Polish just has the
verb
Theform.goodAnnews
is that
verbs
following
arecorresponds
always in
their
infiniti
v
e
infiniti
v
e
is
the
form
of
a
verb
that
toto include
the basietheone that
English;infiniti
indeedves:a lot of people like
whenfollows
quotinginEnglish
Anve ofoddity
of
English
is
that
unl
i
k
e
Polish
has
no
i
n
fi
n
i
t
i
i
t
s
own
and hasbuttoinstead
borrowwefrom
have to say, we can't say
This is how is used in all persons:
must

musieć.

have to,

musieć

to
to
He refused to budge.
She likes to swim. It tends to go wrong. To be or not to be?
must,
musieć,
have to;
I wouldn't like to must do
that,
I wouldn't like to have to do that.
musieć
ja

m u szę

M u szę zobaczyć Kra ków.
I m us t see Kraków.
yo u
ty
m u s i sz Mu si sz zobaczyć Kra ków.
You m ust see Kraków.
s/he/i t
on/ona/ m u s i
On/ona/ono m u s i zobaczyć
ono
Kra ków.
S/he/it m us t see Kraków.
pa n/pa n i m u s i
Pa n/pa n i musi zobaczyć Kra ków.
Sir/madam m us t see Kraków.
we
my
m u s i my Musi my zobaczyć Kra ków.
We must see Kraków.
yo u (g roup) wy
m u sic i e M u s i c i e zobaczyć Kra ków.
You m ust see Kraków.

they

on i , one

m u szą

panowie, m u szą
pa n i e
pań stwo

m u szą

On i/one m u szą zobaczyć Kra ków.
They have to see Kraków.
Pa nowie/Pa n i e m u szą zo baczyć
Kra ków.
Ladies/gentlemen must see Kraków.
Pań stwo m u szą zobaczyć Kra ków.
Ladies and gen tlemen m us t see
Kraków.

Mustn't a nd don't have to . . .

Note thatininPolish
English
whereas

means that you are not allowed to,
means

you mustn't
nie musisz

Nie musisz jechać do Kra kowa .
Nie musisz pić piwa .
Nie m u szę, a l e chcę.

you don't have to.

You don't have to go to Kraków.
You don't have to drink beer.
I don't have to, b ut I wan t to.

Th l n gs we do (to ) o u rselves/ea c h othe r - reflexlve verbs
Musimy spotka ć się zn owu.

We m us t meet (each o ther) again.

In themeet
example
above
youis canmoreseeprecise
that inhere,
Englishanditmak.es
's enoughit elearto saythatwe
must
again.
Polish
it'srefleachexive,otherindicating
we mustthatmeet,people
not justareanybody.
The
Polish
verb hereto
isthemselves
planning
to
do
something
or each other. It's easy to recognize a reflexive verb because it
has attached to it. Polish usesandthe same for
się
hersilf, itsilf, ourselves, yoursilf
Spotyka m się z bratem.
Spotyka sz się z b ratem.
Spotyka się z bratem.
Spotyka my się z b ratem.
Spotykacie się z b ratem.
Spotykają się z bratem.

się
themsilves:

mysilf, yourself, himsilf,

I meet my brother. (I meet myself
with my bro ther.J
You meet yo ur brother.
S/he meets her/his brother.
We meet o ur brother.
You meet yo ur brother.
They meet their brother.

Unit4 Muszę już iść rve gotto go now

49

Similarly, is used with the pan-words in the polite form of address:
się

Jak często pan (i) się spotyka z
b ratem?
Jak często panie/pa n owie/
pań stwo się spotykają?

How often do yo u meet your
bro ther?
How often do yo u meet up ?

Myję się.
Gol ę się.

l'm washing (myse/f).
l'm shaving (myse/f}.

pa kowa ć si ę

to pack (you r things or you r bag s,
rather than yo u rself)
to unpack (you r thing s or you r
bags, ra ther than yourself)

Polish something
is generallytomore
doing
yourselexplicit
f: than English about the fact you are
But Polish can sometimes be quite loose about what counts as doing
something to yourself:
rozpa kować się

It's worthve counterparts
rememberinginthatEnglish.
not all Polish reflexive verbs have their
reflexi
also worthfrom
remembering
and proceed as well as
getIt isseparated
the verb it that
referssięto.canForfollow
example:
Musimy spotka ć się zn owu .
Musimy się spotka ć zn owu .
Musimy się znowu spotkać.

The
changetheofmeaning.
order is dictated by the rhythm ofthe sentence, and it does
not alter
iO C D1 , TR 3 1

The
diagramses notgiveused
youinexamples
the dialogues,
as welPolish.
l as
morefollowing
practical exampl
the text butfromcommon
in everyday
Liste n a n d repeat

50

wrócić do hotelu

go back (come back)

to

już iść

the hotel

Muszę
I mustlhave to
•••

załatwić kilka
spraw
soTt out a few
things

Czy musisz ?
Czy pan/pani musi ?
.zadzwonić do
Do you have to . . . ? __...-..
- .- domu
phone home
Tak, muszę.
Yes. I have to.
•.•

•••

•••

zwiedzić Kraków
(sight)see KTaków

Nie, nie muszę.

No. I Jon•t have to.

wymienić pieniądze
exchange same money

rozpakować się
unpack

kupić przewodnik
buy a guidebook

zwied7.ać Krakowa
(sight)see Kraków
kupić przewodnika
buy a gujdebook

wymienić pieniędzy
exchange some money

Nie muszę

I don't have

•••

to . . .

Test yo u r self

Exercise 1

Translate
into Polish.
sentencestheoutfollowing
loud! (bluesentences
(translation)
cards) Remember to say the
Unit4 Muszę już iść rve gotto go now

51

a

b
c

d

e

f
g
h

I've gatdotoyougo.have to go?
Why
Sheve has
returnhome.
to her hotel.
I'You
gatmusttotoseephone
WeIaloveto.
have to meetLondon
again.
Oh yes, absolutely.
(jej)

(Londyn).

iO C D1 , TR 32

Exercise 2

Respond in Polish to the following statements and questions. The
last
exampleanddeliberately
an English
prompt. (yellow
Listen tocards)
the
recording
check yourhasn't
answersgatand
pronunciation.
a Musimy spotkać się znowu.
Musi pani zwiedzić Kraków.
Muszę już iść.
Czy masz trochę czasu?
Poproszę nazwisko.
b

(Ja love to.)

(Oh yes, absolutely.)

c

d

(Pity.)

(Yes, I have.)

e

Exercise 3

Complete the following sentences.
a Przepraszam, ale muszę już
Andrew
musi
rozpakować
Ewa
musi
wymienić
Musi panmusi załatwićKraków.
Tomek
b

c

d

e

52

____

____

____

kilka

---�

"' mountaineering,
Poles like spendingskiing
theirandfreesailing
time outdoors.
Hillthewalmost
king,popular
are
some
of
sports
forwayPoles.of spending
For less sporty
types,fromallotments
are a
popular
time
away
towns
and
cities.
"' Afishing.
lot ofpoles
like nothing moreisthan
to popular
spend many
an idle hour
Angling
a
very
pastime.
"" Another
favourite
pastime
ofmany
Poles,Considering
especially that
of thea third
older
generation,
is
wi
l
d
mushroom
picking.
of thefact,Polish
countryside
is covered
inblueberries
forest, thisandis notwildsurprising.
all
fruits
of
the
forest
such
as
strawberries are held in high esteem.

O l d you kn ow?

(działki)

(wędkarstwo)

In

Unit4 Muszę już iść rve gotto go now

53

5
Chciał(a) bym zamówić stolik
l'd l i ke to boo k a ta b l e
I n t h i s u n i t you wi l l learn
how to say you would or wouldn't like to do something
how to ask how someone is
how to ask for help and information
how to say numbers 0- 1 OO

isitoneeverywhere
of the mostanduseful
polite phrases
in
everyday
Polish.
You'
l
hear
have
plenty
of
opportunity
to practise itifasyou'welrle. Itfemale.
has two versions:
ifyou're male, and

Chciał( a) bym I would like

chciałbym

chciałabym

Dialogue 1 Dialog pierwszy

Andrew
is leaving
to track down
his relMaria's
atives.apartment. Once again, he expresses his desire
Vocabulary Słówka

Form in the
d ialogue
spotka n ie
n ie ma za co

54

D ictio nary form

Eng l is h trans lation
meeting, get together
don't men tion it, you're
welcome, my pleasure,

dzi ękuję za
znaleźć
do zoba czen i a

there isn't anything (to
thank) for, not at all
thank yo u for

dziękowa ć >
podziękować
znajd owa ć > zn a l eźć
zobaczenie; widzieć
> zobaczyć

find
see yo u

ju tro

Andrew
Marla
Andrew
Marla

tomorrow

Dziękuję za spotkanie.
Nie ma za co.
Tak bardzo chciałbym
znaleźć moją rodzinę.
Oczywiście, rozumiem.
Do zobaczenia jutro.

Thank you for the meeting.
You're welcome/not at all.
l would so like to find my
famiły.
Ofcourse, I understand.
See you tomorrow.

,.,
,.,

a:
.....
„

...

c
u

�

Dialogue 2 Dialog drugi

Andrewhungry.
goes Hebackphones
to his thehotel.reception
He has desk
unpacked
his thiantabl
gs ande innow
he
feels
and
books
the
hotel
restaurant.
Vocabulary Słówka

Form in the
d ialogue
dzień dobry

D ictio nary form

Eng lish trans lation

dzi eń, dobry

restau racja (f )
słu cham

słuchać

hello, good morning,
good afternoon
res tauran t
listen (here: Can I help
yo u?)
to order
table in a restauran t,
small table
reception (desk)

za mówi ć
stol i k (m)
recepcja

za mawiać > za mówi ć

Unit 5 Chciał(a)bym zamówić stolik I� like to book a table

55

na którą godzinę
poproszę
do widzenia

>

która godzina
prosić poprosić
widzenie; widzieć
zobaczyć

wha t time for, when for

>

p/ease (extra po/ite)
goodbye (till we see
each other)
room

pokój

� Receptionist

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
„

...

c
u

: Andrew

�

: Receptionist
: Andrew
: Receptionist
: Andrew
: Receptionist
: Andrew
: Receptionist
.

: Andrew
: Receptionist
.

: Andrew

56

Dzień dobry, recepcja.
Słucham.
Dzień dobry. C hciałby m
zamówić stolik w
restauracji.
Na którą godzinę?
Na siódmą trzydzieści.
Poproszę nazwisko.
Stewart.
Pan Andrew Stewart?
Tak.
Pokój sto dwadzieścia
pięć?
Tak.
Proszę bardzo.
Dziękuję bardzo.
Do widzenia.

Good afternoon, reception.

.

Can / help?

Good afternoon. l'd /ike
to book a table in the
restaurant.
(For) what time?
For seven thirty.
Can I have yourname, p/ease?
Stewart.
Mr Andrew Stewart?
Yes.
Room 1 25?
Yes.
Certainly.
Thankyou very much.
Bye.

:
:

Dialogue 3 Dialog trzeci

Meanwhile, Maria telephones her friend,inEwa,
whoMaria
worksneeds
in theEwas
Kraków.
help to trace Andrew's family in Poland.
Archiwum Państwowe (State Archives)

Vocabulary Słówka

Form in the
d ialogue
słu cham

mówi
cześć
słyc hać + a cc.
co słyc hać?
z + i n strum enta l
z to bą
pot rzeb uję
pomocy
za sięg n ąć
i nformacji
d oku menty
dobrze

Ewa
Marla
Ewa
Marla
Ewa

D ictiona ry fo rm

Eng l is h tra nslation

słuchać

hello, l'm listening,
pardon?, can I
help you?
is speaking, speaks
hi
... can be heard
how are things?
what's new?
with
with yo u
I need help

mówić > powiedzi eć

ty
pot rzebować + gen .,
po moc
za sięgać > za sięg nąć,
i nformacje (pl .)
d oku ment
dobry

Słucham.
Cześć. Mówi Maria.
Cześć. Co słychać?
Dziękuję, dobrze.
Chciałabym spotkać się z tobą.
Potrzebuję pomocy.
Jakiej pomocy?

get some
information
documen ts
OK, correctly, we/I,
right

Hello.
Hi. Maria speaking.
Hi. How are you?
Fine, thanks.
/'d like to meet up with you.
I need some help.
What sort of help?

Unit 5 Chciał(a)bym zamówić stolik I� like to book a table

in
,.,

a:
.....

„

...

c
u

�

57

Marla
Ewa

Chciałabym zasięgnąć
informacji i znaleźć
dokumenty.
Dobrze.

l'd like to get some
information and to find
some documents.
OK.

Let's practise
Ili"
Ili"
Ili"
Ili"

Ili"
Ili"

Ili"

Copy theof paper.
dialogues (both Polish and English parts) onto small
pieces
pieces again
and reconstruct
the dialogues
correctly
(bothdialogues.
parts).
MiMiSeparate
xx thethe pieces
and
reconstruct
the
Polish
side
of
the
the Polish and English parts of the dialogues. Turn the
Polish
parts
face
downintoandEnglish.
mix them again. Tum them face up at
random
and
translate
DoArrange
the same
exercisesidewithof thethe dialogue
English part
ofcorrect
the dialogues.
the
Polish
in
the
order,
tum
Andrew'
s
/Ewa's
part
face
down
and
try
to
speak
their
parts
without
looking.
Repeat the same exercises with Maria's part.

How the l anguage wo rks
'I wo u l d l i ke' a n d 'I m us t/have to'

Because in the same way whenandused with other verbs, youbehave
grammatically
canin
easily
substitute
one
for
the
other
in
all
the
examples
you
have
seen
this and in the previous unit:
chciał(a)bym I would like

Chciał(a) bym już i ść.
Mu szę już i ść.
Chciał(a) bym za mówi ć ta ksówkę.
Mu szę za mówić ta ksówkę.
Chciał(a) bym wymienić p i en iądze.
Mu szę wym i en ić pieniądze.

muszę I must/have to

l'd like to go now.
I have to go now.
l'd like to book a taxi.
I have to book a taxi.
l'd like to exchange some money.
I have to exchange some money.

Ch ciał(a)bym zrobić za ku py.
Mu szę zrobić za ku py.

l'd like to do some shopping.
I have to do some shopping.

So far you have
metre male;
the first person singular
form
ofHere are the
if
you'
if
you'
r
e
female.
remaining forms:
(I)

chciałbym

1 st person
2 nd perso n
3 rd person

1 st person
2 nd perso n
3 rd person

would Wce

-

chciałabym

ja (/)
ty (you)
on (he)
o n a (she)
pan (you)
/pa n i

chc iał bym
chc iał byś
chc iał by
chc iał by

m y (we)
wy (yo u)
o n i (they, including
masculine)
one (they, no
masculine)
pań stwo (yo u
ladies and
gen tleman),
panowie (yo u
gen tlemen)
pan ie (yo u ladies)

chc iała bym
chc iała byś
chc iała by
chc iała by

chc iel i byś my
chc iel i byście
chc iel i by

chciałybyś my
chc iałybyśc ie
chciałyby

chc iel i by

chciałyby

The
first personone or moreis orpeople)
includesis thetheaddressee,
person speaking.
Thebeing
second
person
the
person
spoken
third person is any third
party or entity
not directly
involvedto,inandthe theconversation:
(singular),
(plural).
Asperson
you know,
and asinthePolish
table mean
shows, theunless
third person
singularis attached
and thirdto
plural forms
a pan-word
(I, we)

(you,

he, she, it

they

they

Unit 5 Chciał(a)bym zamówić stolik I� like to book a table

59

change them into
politeto be common
(like the inold-fashioned
thataused
shops).
Look at themarediagram
on the opposite page. It will help you organize and
practise
examples.
you

Would madam like

to try this on?

[·····ir;5���
�·:::·
�:::::�:�·
�Read
��·them
�::��·::�:::�:::��:t
· „.... „.
surfuce
where
you
see
them.
out
laud
and
try
to
remember
whole phrases by heart. Imagine yourself saying them in Poland
can

.......... ............. ......... ...................... ......................... ............. .........

Not j u st men and wo m e n, but v i r i l e and no n -v i r i le

From the table on the previous page you can see that Polish lines up the
genders
diwhen
fferentlyouy inmetthetwosingular
andfor in theTheplural,
something
already
hinted
at
words
verb
forms,
tao,
are
diincludes
fferent,grammatically
depending on masculine
whether youpersons
are talking
about
a
group
that
or a group that doesn't.
It's unfortunately
quiteforcommon
forandtextbooks
tothat.sayThis
simplyisn'tthatstrictly
it's
for
men
and
women,
leave
it
at
true,ldren,
though,
attractively
simple
as it sounds.
For one Same
thing,examples
it leaves outwill
chihelp
and
for
another,
it
overlooks
mixed
groups.
to make this elear:
and are grammatically masculine, so
and
their plurals,neuter, viri
lmasculine,
e.
on the other
hand, is grammatically
not
so
are non-viri
talking about
are boys.le in the plural, even if all the children we're
Ifyou referortoaswomen (especiallyevenin iflargeno men
groups)are asinvolved, then
grammatically they're virile.
Ifyou
men as them, then they'which
you're especially
lithekely
toword
do ifthink
you'reofcounting
r
e
non-virile,
because
is grammatically feminine.
they.

oni

IJil>

one

Chłopiec boy
synowie,

syn son

are

chłopcy
Dziecko child,
nasze dzieci our

children

wszyscy

IJil>

everybody,

ludzie people,

osoby persons,

IJil>

o soba person

60

Don't worry,
further practice you will find that this concept will
become
easierwithto understand.
Chciał(a)bym vs . nie chciał(a)bym

As explained
intheUnitcase forgrammatical
lyobjspeaking,
niefromusedthewith
Polishve to
verbs
changes
the
direct
e
ct
noun
accusati
the genitive:
3,

(Ja )*
I
(Ja )
I
(Ja )
I
(Ja )
I
(Ja )
I
(Ja )
I

chci ał(a)bym kupić
would like to b uy
n i e chc iał(a) bym ku p i ć
wouldn't like to b uy
chci ał(a)bym zwi edzić
would like to (sigh t)see
n i e chc iał(a)bym zwi edzić
wo uldn't like to (sigh t)see
chci ał(a)bym za mówić
would like to book
n i e chc iał(a)bym za mówi ć
wo uldn't like to book

p rzewod n i k. (acc.)
a g uide.
p rzewod n i ka . (g en.)
a g uide.
Wawel . (a cc.)
Wawel cas tle.
Wawel u . (g en .)
Wawel castle.
stol ik. (a cc.)
a table.
stol i ka . (gen .)
a table.

*You don't needindicates
to includethat thein first
the sentence
because thespeaking.
ending of
person singularis
This is a principle
you widoesn't
ll frequently
come
across invePolish.
Furthermore,
the
case
change
if
the
accusati
is nothas atodirect
object.
For
example,
when
negated,
have an
accusative with and not a genitive.
ja

chciał( a)bym

czekać na to waitfor

na

(N ie) czeka m na tra mwaj.

l'm (no t) waiting for a tram.

Ma m psa .
Nie mam psa .

/'ve go t a dog.
I haven't got a dog.

Sometimes
cases
coincidetheinchange
form: of the case will be hidden by the fact that two
Unit 5 Chciał(a)bym zamówić stolik I� like to book a table

61

In thetivfirst
example,the nounis refers
in the toaccusative
case, whichinisthelikesecond
the
geni
e because
a living being.
example
in the genitive case. The forms just look identical. Here
are samereally
mare isexamples:
psa

Psa

p sa
kota
kon i a
szczu ra

pies (dog)
kot (cat)
koń (horse)
szczu r (rat)

p sa
kota
kon i a
szczu ra

� C D1 , TR 36
Llste n a n d repeat

kupić przewodnik
buy a guidebook

'

mieszkać
w

Krakowie

live in Kraków

znalei.ć moją rodzinę
(ind my family

Chciał(a)bym

zamówić stolik
book a table
•••

I would like to

Czy cbciał(a)byś
Czy pan chciałby

• . .

•••

Czy pani chciałaby
Would you lik e to
mówić po

?

• . .

?

?

•••

Tak, cbciał(a)bym.
polsku

speak Polish

mieć psa
have a dog

Yes. I'd like to.

Nie, Die chciał(a)bym.
No, I wouldn't like to.

I

zobaczyć Wawel

see Wawel castle

62

?

•••

I

zasi�
informacji
obtain (a piece of)
tnformation

� dokummty

(ind same doaunents

I

kupić pnewodnika
buy a guidebook

/

Nie chciał(a)bym
I wouldn't like to

--•.•

�

.„

znaleić
dokumentów

ma1eić mojej rodziny
(ind my family

fmd documents

Word association is a great way to remember words and phrases.
You can do it in three ways:
I can remember a Polish word because it looks like an English
word.
looks looks
like like
looks like
I can remember
English
word. a Polish word because it sounds like an
looks and sounds like in English.
I can remember
around
it. a Polish word because I can create a story
CanCanyouyouimagine
eating abrother?
pie?
imaginea doga naughty

......... ............. ......... ...................... ................ ......... ............. ...........

lnsight

li>

Kot
cat.
Recepcj a
recep tion .
Restauracja
restaurant.

li>

Pa rk

park

li>

pies (dog ) brat (brother)

......... ............. ......... ...................... ................ ......... ............. ...........

Unit 5 Chciał(a)bym zamówić stolik I� like to booka table

63

-O CD1 , TR 37

Liste n a n d repeat
Num be rs
all,

First of let's learn to count up to ten.
2
3
4
5

jeden
dwa
trzy
cztery
p ięć

6
7
8
9
10

sześć
siedem
osiem
dzi ewięć
dzi esięć

Once you'number
ve gotdigit
thesebynumbers
at youryoufingertips
you can
spell out any(o).
longer
digit, provided
also know
the word
Now let's look at the numbers ofwhich have a stressed in them:
zero

11-19, all

11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

jedenaście
dwanaście
trzynaście
czternaście
p iętnaście
szesnaście
siedemna ście
osiemnaście
dzi ewiętnaście

Now let's count up in tens:
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
1 00

64

dwadzieścia
trzydzieści
czterdzieści
pi ęćdziesiąt
sześćdzi esi ąt
siedemdziesiąt
osiemdziesiąt
dzi ewi ęćdziesiąt
sto

na

You
the basie
ten, toanddescribe
the tensother
are
relatedcantoseeeachhowother.
Thesenumbers
words canupbeto combined
numbers (in-between and over as you would expect:
11-19,

100),

24
35
78
89
46
82
93
1 03
117
1 55
1 97

dwadzieścia cztery
trzydzieści p ięć
siedemdzi esi ąt osiem
osiemdziesiąt dziewi ęć
czterdzieści sześć
osiemdziesiąt dwa
dzi ewi ęćdziesiąt trzy
sto trzy
sto siedemnaście
sto pięćdziesiąt p ięć
sto dziewi ęćdziesiąt siedem

Youccan
practise
out laud telephone numbers,
whi
h Poles
usuallyour
y givenumbers
in pairsbyetcofreading
digits:
.
trzydzieści jeden zero dwa

dwadzieścia siedem (35-02-27),

.O CD1 , TR 38

Pronunciation guide Jak to wymówić?

In Polish samewhichconsonants
permanent
partnerships with other
consonants
together form
represent
one sound:
eh, rz, sz, cz, dz, dż, dź

represents
a itssingle
sound
likelarlythepronounced.
at the endDont
of thebeScots
wordto
The
letter
on
own
is
simi
tempted
pronounce in any other way - in Polish it is always as in

eh

eh

h
eh

eh

I.och.

loch.

Liste n a n d repeat
chwi l a
momen t
chętn i e
willingly

Unit 5 Chciał(a)bym zamówić stolik I� like to book a table

65

troc hę
chyba
a rc h iwum
a rchitekt
chci ałbym
ra chunek
ku chnia
sc hody

a bit
perhaps
archives
architect
/'d like to
bill
kitchen/cuisine
s tairs

Try
Polish words.as that'
Takes thethembestas road
slowlytoaslong-term
you needfluency:
to guarantee
perfectthesesmoothness,
cza s
deszcz
dżokej
żona

szkoła
szczu r
trzeba
ryż

time
rain
jockey
wife

school
rat
one needs to
rice

Unlesstofollowed
a singleandsound
which
Poles isbya singlerepresents
sound. Listen
repeat:like the in
i, dz

ku ku rydza

maize

ds

sadza

soo t

Test yo u r self

Exercise 1

Translate the following sentences into Polish. (blue cards)
a Thank you for the meeting.
lilikkee toto book
find mya table.
family.
Can Iarehaveyou?your name, please?
How
(For)seven
whatthitime?
For
rty.you.
lilikkee toto meet
find some documents.
b 1(1
c 1(1
d
e

f
g
h 1(1
1(1

66

beds,

Exerdse 2

Tum the affirmative sentences below into negative ones. (green cards)
a Chciałbym zamówić stolik.
Chciałabym
kupićWawel.
przewodnik.
Muszę
zobaczyć
Mamkonia.
Chciałbym
wymienić
pieniądze.
Muszę
zrobić
zakupy.
Jestem głodny.
b

c

d

e

f
g

� C D1 , TR 39

Exerdse 3

Respond to theonfollowing
English(yellow
prompts.cards)Check your answers and
pronunciation
the recording.
a Potrzebuję pomocy.
Chciałbym
zamówić
taksówkę.(American)
Czy
jest
pan
Amerykaninem?
Chciałbym spotkać się z tobą.
b

c

d

(What sort oflzelp?)
(Address, pkase.)
(No, I'm Scottish.)
(At what time?)

Exerdse 4

Completeinthethefollowing
selection
box. (greensentences.
cards) Choose the correct answers from the
a Chciałbym mieszkać
Nie muszę zobaczyć
zasięgnąć
Chciałabym
Chciałbym
mieć
Chciałbym
Chciałabymzamówić
kupić
Kraków, przewodni
k, informacjWawelu,
i, psa, Wawel
w Krakowie, kot,
stolik, informacja,
b

c

d

e

f

_____

_____

_____

_____

_____

_____

Unit 5 Chclał(a)bym zamówić stolik I� llke to book a table

67

During World War Polish mathematician and cryptologist Marian
Rejewskiencrypting
(1905-80) solved
themachine
generałworked,
conceptthus
of howgiving
the famous
German
Enigma
theEnigma
Britishcode
cryptologists
at
Bletchley
Park
a
head
start
in
cracking
the
and hugely
contributing to the victory by Britain and Allied forces over
Nazi
Germany.
O l d you kn ow?

I l,

6
Poproszę lody
Ca n I h ave a n i ce crea m, p l ea se?
I n t h i s u n i t you wi l l learn
how to ask for things politely
how to order food
how to buy stamps and postcards

In this unityyou
learnshopping
how to askor foreatingthingsout.politely -this is
particularl
usefulwilwhen
rr;��!���:·
�-��·text.
:i�:��·Then
::�:�:·listen
:�·�:�·and�:::�:�·
:the�·;�:·:::�:·
:book.
::�:�····„ „
looking
at
the
follow
text
i
n
the
Finally, try to read out laud along with the recording.
....

...

]

........... ................ ......... ...................... ................... ........................

Dialogue 1 Dialog pierwszy

The
following
day
Maria andMarket
AndrewSquare
are meeting
for aofKraków'
cotfee in ones Oldof
many
cafes
in
the
beautiful
in
the
heart
Town.
Itechoes
's a busyacross
place;thethesquare;
sound theofhorse-drawn
carriages
carrying
tourists
folk
band
pl
a
ys
traditional
Polish
music
and
the
trumpeter
is
pl
a
yi
n
g
the
traditional
bugle-call
from thecomes
tower upof theto their table. (St Mary's Church). A young
waitress
(hejnał)

Kościół Mariacki

Unit6 Poproszę lody Can l have an ice cream,please?

69

Vocabulary Słówka

Form in the dia logue
sernik
lody kawowe
a

Dictiona ry form

Engl ish translation
cheesecake
coffee ice cream

lód, lody, kawowy

and (with a change of

partici pant), and/but
Can I help you? (literally :

słucham państwa

l'm /istening to you,
ladies and gentlemen)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
•

Kel nerka
(waitress)
Ma ria

·

„

...

c
u

�

Hello.

Dzień dobry.
Słucham pań stwa?
Poproszę kawę
i sernik.
A ja poproszę herbatę i
lody kawowe.

Andrew

Can I help you?
Can I have a coffee
and a cheesecake, please? :
And can I have a tea,
and a coffee ice cream,
please?

Kel nerka
.

70

.

.

. . . .

.

. . .

Certainly.

Proszę bardzo.
. .

. .

.

. . . .

. .

. .

.

. . .

.

. . . .

.

. . .

.

. . .

.

.

. .

. . . .

.

.

. .

. . . .

.

. .

.

.
. . . .

Dialogue 2 Dialog drugi

Maria and Andrew have finished their meal and Maria asks for the bill.
Vocabulary Słówka

Form in the dia logue
rac h u nek
zapłacić
wykl uczone

g ościem

Dictionary fo rm
płacić > za płacić
wyki uczony;
wykl uczać
> wykl uczyć
g ość

English tra nslation
bill
pay
excluded, out of
the q uestion
guest

•. . . .